A.S. Makhov, associate professor, Ph.D.
Shuya branch of Ivanovo state university, Shuya
O.N. Stepanova, professor, Dr.Hab., acting head of chair of sports disciplines and teaching methodology
Moscow pedagogical state university, Moscow
Key words: control, development, adaptive sport, handicapped persons.
Introduction. As individualization of the population in most of the countries of the world, including Russia, grows, the problems of social rehabilitation and adaptation of persons with health disorders and the handicapped and their social integration are getting especially important.
At the modern phase of social development the urgency of solving this problem is recognized at all levels. At the ceremony in the Kremlin following the results of the Paralympic games 2012 President of the RF V.V. Putin called the performance of Russian Paralympic athletes in London a triumph and stressed that “…they had confidently propelled our country to the top in the international Paralympic sport. We shall do our best to make Russia a major participant of the Paralympic movement, to consolidate it not only in the pake of leaders of the world Paralympic sport, but among the countries that ensure the real equality of opportunities for every single citizen of our country. Here the main goal is to make Paralympic sport affordable and inviting” . However, despite the conditions being arranged now to involve big masses of the population with health exclusions for physical exercises and sports occupations , the course of development of sport of the handicapped is spontaneous and weakly manageable in our country. First of all, it is shown in the lack of general sense and a program of development of adaptive sport in our country, of a clearly defined purpose, the main directions of its realization and control mechanisms at the regional and federal levels.
The recent studies within the issues of adaptive physical culture prove that the researchers involved in the issues of scientific validation of theoretical and applied aspects of adaptive physical culture focus mostly on the issues of theoretical, tactical, physical and psychological training of athletes , , ; validation of the content and orientation of new types of adaptive sport , , , ; regulations in Paralympic sport , ; social and other issues of competitive activity of the handicapped , , .
Materials and methods. Within the framework of allocating the main directions of the program of development of control in adaptive sport were:
- the analysis of the regulatory-methodology documentation of organizations and institutions of the Ivanovo region, involved in mass physical training and sports activity with the handicapped;
- conducted participant and nonparticipant educational observations of handicapped athletes from different nosological groups, along with supervision of the work of the adaptive sports authorities in the Ivanovo region, professional activity of executives of sports organizations, sports referees, volunteers, teachers, trainers and representatives of sports teams working in the system of adaptive sport, work of sports and sports-fitness clubs for the handicapped of the Ivanovo region “Penguin”, “Will”, “Hope”, “Source” etc., the state of the material and technical base, financing cost ratio and human resource endowment of the regional system of adaptive sport, the course of organization and conducting of sports and fitness and teaching and sports activities with the handicapped;
- the experience of organization and conducting sports mass measures and competitions in various adaptive sports (darts, wheelchair racing, chess, table tennis, air rifle shooting, armwrestling, goalball, boccia) was examination and synthesis;
- the qualimetric quality control of physical training and sports activities with the handicapped, held in adaptive sports clubs, and organizing and conducting sports competitions for the handicapped;
- mass and expert polls (interview and questionnaire) of 50 regional senior representatives in the sphere of adaptive sport (chief magistrates, heads and experts of sports department and committees), 48 members of the teaching staff of sports organizations and collectives for the handicapped, 550 handicapped athletes from different nosological groups (“deaf and hearing impaired” – 129, “blind and visually impaired” – 91, “with spinal cord injuries” – 301, “mentally retarded” – 29, 50 volunteers – students of basic (21 subjects) and secondary (29 subjects) vocational education of the Ivanovo regional institutions, assisting in staging sports events for the handicapped, 64 students of the speciality/direction “Adaptive physical culture” and 7 postgraduates of Shuya branch state pedagogical university.
- the comprehensive analysis of the level of psychophysical condition of handicapped athletes from different nosological groups.
Results and discussion.
Proceeding from the generalized major characteristics of the theoretical activity and the personal practical experience of control of development in adaptive sport in the Ivanovo region, the program of control of development of adaptive sport can be abbreviated to “FINSIPS” (financing, infrastructure, normative-legal regulation, science, information-communicative support, personnel, sport), with the following main directions of its implementation:
- financing – creating and using in adaptive sport centralized and decentralized cash funds, namely: budgetary and non-budget financing, donations of physical and legal persons, credits of banks and other creditors, other sources in compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation;
- infrastructure – constructing new and reconstructing acting sports complexes and grounds for the handicapped; providing sports organizations with necessary equipment and facilities in view of development of perspective and new adaptive sports; ensuring barrier-free access to sports objects for the handicapped.
- normative-legal regulations – purposeful influencing upon the actions of the participants of the adaptive sports movement and social relations in the adaptive sport system using laws and regulations for their arrangement and progressive development. The objects of the normative legal regulations in the sphere of adaptive sport are as follows: governed by the law public relations between the subjects of the adaptive sports movement; organizational structure of sports control of the handicapped; actions of federations, centers, clubs and other adaptive sports organizations; organization and quality of sports-fitness and educational-sports activity with the handicapped; resources (personnel, information-communicative, financing, material-technical and other) provision of the system of adaptive sport;
- science - activation of scientific (both basic and applied) researches on the issues of enhancement of operation of the system of adaptive sport and its control;
- information-communicative support – creating the system of promotion of physical culture and sport among the handicapped and popularizing achievements of handicapped athletes in media; coordinating actions of local bodies and other interested physical and legal persons in development of adaptive sport; participation of organizations for the handicapped at All-Russia educational forums, scientific conferences on the problems of development of adaptive sport; establishing contacts and interfacing with domestic and international organizations of the handicapped; involving the handicapped and their families in regular physical exercises and sports occupations; collaborating with medical and educational institutions; searching for patrons, sponsors and organizing cooperation with them; advertizing sports organizations for the handicapped, programs of sports and fitness and sports activity being realized, announcing sports measures and mass media events being held etc.;
- personnel - designing the content of vocational training and teaching trainers, referees, volunteers, managers for the adaptive sports sphere; outplacement of specialists in the sphere of adaptive sport; establishing sports clubs at universities for training professional personnel for the sphere of adaptive sport; increase of rates in adaptive sport in the regional physical training and sports organizations for the handicapped;
- sport - making adaptive sport more mass and affordable; high quality assurance in both sports and fitness and training-sports activities, and organizing and holding sports competitions for the handicapped from different nosological groups; determining the system of adaptive sport to improve the quality of life, social well-being (including processes of social adaptation and integration), level of psychophysical condition, sports mastery and sports achievements of the handicapped.
The high socio-educational efficiency of the designed development control program for adaptive sport was proved in the educational experiment (case study of the Ivanovo region), conducted in 2009-2012, which is stipulated by:
- more mass adaptive sport, namely: increase of the number of handicapped persons involved in physical exercises and sport (by 4,4 times); greater number of handicapped athletes, who participated in sports competitions on the territory of the Ivanovo region (by 8,4 times); spreading (by 3,2 times) of the spectrum of adaptive sports being developed in the region;
- build-up and enhancement of the regional infrastructure of adaptive sport: construction of the first the Ivanovo region specialized sports complex for the handicapped (Shuya town); growth of the number of sports grounds (by 3,4 times) and sports and physical training organizations (by 2,7 times) for the handicapped;
- development of the system of sports competitions: increase of the total number of held sports competitions (by 5,14 times) and organization of interregional and All-Russia competitions on the territory of the Ivanovo region (up to 7 a year at the initial zero exponent);
- improved sports results, namely: the growth of the number of regional champions and prize winners in various adaptive sports (by 11,6 times); training of first in the Ivanovo region champions and prize winners of All-Russia competitions (by the time of finishing the experiment their number reached 27 persons), participants (4 persons) and winners (2 persons) of the World Cup and European Championship;
- improvement of the human resource endowment of the regional system of adaptive sport – appearance of first in the Ivanovo region referees working at All-Russia competitions for the handicapped (3 persons), members of the Russian Paralympic Committee (7 persons), rates in adaptive sport in sports organizations and departments for the handicapped (3 positions) and growth of the number of volunteers for the adaptive sport sphere (by 15 times) and organized extension courses and retraining of the personnel of the adaptive sport sphere (by 6,6 times);
- activated research and educational-promotion activities, namely: defence of 2 PhD theses and working at the doctoral thesis on the problems of adaptive sport; increased number of scientific publications and teaching and methodological issues dedicated to development of adaptive sport (by 51,6 times); expansion in the number of media publications, covering sports achievements of handicapped athletes (by 10,2 times);
- higher standard of management competency of the executive personnel and his readiness to implement long-term and pilot projects on development of sport for the handicapped in the Ivanovo region (by 1,2 times), to develop elite adaptive sport (by 1,3 time).
In addition, the educational experiment having been made in various sections of the system of adaptive physical education and sport (in the sports and fitness club for the handicapped “Penguin” with deaf women aged 25-35 and blind men aged 25-40, in the complex center with mentally retarded children aged 12-13), revealed the results proving the socio-educational efficiency of the author’s concept and the control development program for adaptive sport. It is seen:
- in the increased level of satisfaction of the subjects with the quality of sports and fitness and training and sports activities with the handicapped in the Ivanovo region (by 2,5-4,3 points; Р<0,01);
- in the high level of satisfaction of the subjects with the organization and the process of physical culture occupations (4,7 points on a five-grade scale), along with their readiness to continue with physical training and sports activity (4,8 points);
- in correcting motor and functional disturbances, rising the level of physical development, physical fitness and improvement of the psychoemotional state of the subjects (P<0,01-0,05);
- in greater satisfaction with the obtained quality of life (by 1,9-2,3 points; Р<0,05), physical condition (by 1,8-2,7 points; Р<0,05), improved psychological comfort of the subjects of the experiment (by 2,4-2,6 points; Р<0,01-0,05);
- in reduced adherence to bad habits among the engaged ones (by 40,0-50,0%; Р<0,01).
Conclusions. Hence, the program of control of development of sport of the handicapped " FINSIPS" with the principal direction such as financing, infrastructure, normative regal regulation, science, information and communication support, personnel, sport has proved its high socio-educational efficiency shown in the more mass adaptive sport, build-up and enhancement of the regional infrastructure of adaptive sport, developed system of sports competitions, higher sports results among the handicapped, improved personnel support, more active scientific and educational-promotion activities, growth of the management competence level in the regional administration and its readiness to implement long-term and pilot projects on development of sport of the handicapped, the increased level of satisfaction with the quality of sports and fitness and training and sports activities with the handicapped, in the high level of satisfaction of the subjects with organization and course of physical occupations, correction of motor and functional disturbances, higher level of physical development, physical fitness and improved psychoemotional state of the handicapped, rising satisfaction with the obtained quality of life and less adherence to bad habits among the ones who train.
- Evseev, S.P. Adaptive sport for persons with cognitive development disorder: state and perspectives of development / S.P. Evseev // Adaptivnaya fizicheskaya kultura. – 2012. – № 2 (50). – P. 2–11. (In Russian)
- Evseeva, O.E. The state program “Accessible environment” in action. Professional development of experts in work with the handicapped / O.E. Evseeva // Adaptivnaya fizicheskaya kultura. – 2012. – № 1 (49). – P. 57. (In Russian)
- Results of the Paralympic games-2012. [Electronic resource]. – URL: http://www.forbes.ru (accessed: 13.09.2012). (In Russian)
- Kornev, A.V. Phases of development of rolling ball – the first sports game for the blind and visually impaired athletes in Russia / A.V. Kornev // Adaptivnaya fizicheskaya kultura. – 2012. – № 4 (52). – P. 41–43. (In Russian)
- Litosh, N.L. The rules of development of motor abilities of mentally retarded boys aged 11-16 / N.L. Litosh, E.P. Parygin // Adaptivnaya fizicheskaya kultura. – 2011. – № 1 (45). – P. 26-28. (In Russian)
- Makhov, A.S. Sports recreational club for the handicapped “Penguin” / A.S. Makhov, O.N. Stepanova // Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii. – 2012. – № 10. – P. 99-105. (In Russian)
- Mutko, V.L. Special Olympic movement in St.Petersburg and perspectives of its development / V.L. Mutko // Adaptivnaya fizicheskaya kultura. – 2000. – № 3–4. – P. 2–5. (In Russian)
- Osokina, E.A. Educational conditions determining efficiency of realization of the system of fitness classes with deaf women aged 25-35 / E.A. Osokina // Sovremennye issledovaniya sotsial’nykh problem. – 2012. – № 4. – P. 53–53. (In Russian)
- Rostomashvili, L.N. Physical exercises for children with visual impairments: guidelines for teachers, trainers and parents / L.N. Rostomashvili; ed. by L.V. Shapkova. St.Petersburg: Publ. h-se of Institute of specialized pedagogics and psychology, 2001. – 66 P. (In Russian)
- Collected legislative legal documents in the field of Paralympic sport / Comp. by A.V. Tsarik; ed, by P.A. Rozhkov; Russian Paralympic committee. – Moscow: Sovetsky sport, 2011. – 1040 P. (In Russian)
- Hoda, L.D. Program on physical education for children with severe hearing impairments and speech disturbances: study guide / L.D. Hoda. – Yakutsk: Publ. h-se of YaSU, 1999. – 52 P. (In Russian)
- Functional classification in Paralympic sport / Comp. by N.A. Sladkov; Russian Paralympic committee. – Moscow: Sovetsky sport, 2011. – 160 P.
- Shapkova, L.V. Private methodologies of adaptive physical culture: study guide / Ed. by L.V. Shapkova – Moscow: Sovetsky sport, 2004. – 464 P. (In Russian)
Author’s contacts: firstname.lastname@example.org