R.B. Elipkhanov, associate professor, Ph.D.
Institute of physical culture and judo, Adyghe state university, Maikop
Key words: judo, women, strength training.
Introduction. The results of Russian female judokas on the international arena are quite modest, specifically if compared to the recent outstanding performance of Russian male judokas in the London Olympics. Undoubtedly, improvement of the theory and methodology of training of female judokas is one of the key factors of bringing Russian women’s judo to the high international level, determining the rise of researchers’ attention to the problems of training of female judokas [1-9].
Herewith, proceeding from the experience of development of the theory and methodology of training in other sports, one can expect in the near future generalizing works on the problems of enhancement of various manifestations of the motor function, determining success of competitive activity in women’s judo. The synthesis of Russian and foreign literature sources devoted to the problems of training of female judokas reveals that the theory and methodology of training in women’s judo are at this phase of development and these kind of works can provide more knowledge in the field of theory of women’s judo. The long-term comprehensive analysis dedicated to the long-term strength training in women’s judo, conducted in the Institute of physical culture and judo of Adyghe state university, is within the noted trend.
The purpose of the study was to scientifically substantiate the concept of long-term strength training in women’s judo.
Methods of research. To achieve the objectives theoretical (abstraction, direct and returns-based style analysis and synthesis, semantic modeling), pedagogical (teacher observation, questionnaire, timing, teacher testing, educational experiment) and biomechanical (two-dimensional and three-dimensional video analysis, anthropometry, as well as methods of mathematical statistics) methods were applied.
Results of research. As the majority of trainers with different qualifications assume, strength training is among the main directions in training of female judokas. The dominant role in the structure of special strength fitness of female judokas belongs to speed-strength abilities, strength endurance is less valuable, followed by actual strength abilities.
A wide range of means and methods of developing strength abilities is used in strength training of female judokas. However, there is no pronounced compliance of the claimed significance in the structure of special fitness of female judokas of various manifestations of strength abilities and means and methods most frequently used in their strength training.
Most of trainers, regardless of their skill levels and experience of working with women, declare the most frequent use of the concentrated method of organizing strength training. At the same time in the theory of strength training in sport it is commonly thought that the use of different variants of concentration of strength training is advisable only for elite athletes, when other methods of strength training organization have already exhausted the adaptive reserves of the female athlete’s body.
Microtears and tears of knee, elbow, shoulder and finger joint ligaments are the most common orthopedic traumas among female judokas.
The most acute traumas, permanently depriving female judokas of working capacity and requiring surgical treatment, are injuries of ligaments and meniscus of the knee joint and shoulder dislocations.
The nature of injuries of female judokas stipulates for the need for using appropriate means of strength training at early phases of growth of sports skills in order to strengthen the musculo-ligamentous apparatus, impact exercises of low intensity in the first place.
Female judokas with the categories of "Master of Sports" and "Master of Sports International Class" have significantly smaller values of most of the changing fat folds and body fat in general compared with the female judokas with the 1st category and “Candidate Masters of Sports”. The noted differences were more pronounced in female judokas of higher weight categories. This defines the application in strength training of female judokas of the means and methods that help to reduce body fat, which is passive and hinders the manifestation of various strength abilities in the competitive performance.
More qualified female judokas have longer fingers and more developed forearm muscular system (bigger maximum forearm girth), which conditions using means and methods to strengthen the relevant muscle groups in strength training of female judokas.
Higher qualified female judokas have larger values of neck, relaxed shoulder and chest circumferences at maximum inhalation and exhalation, during quiet breathing. This reflects the orientation of the impact of competitive and training activities on the body of female judokas and the results of qualification and enables to consider appropriate strength load for the muscle groups that reside on these body segments.
Higher qualified female judokas have shorter lower limbs, which determines the lower position of the common center of gravity of the body and its greater stability and can serve as a guide for qualification in women's judo.
Proceeding from the two-dimensional and three-dimensional video analysis, during a te-guruma throw in elite female judokas the right and left gluteus maximus, right and left biceps femoris muscles, right and left quadriceps femoris muscles are the most active and work in the concentric mode. Shoulder and forearm flexor muscles are also active in the static mode.
During an inner thig throw the main movements are made by working in the concentric mode rear acromiohumeral muscle (by hand, to capture the leg), latissimus dorsi, long head of the triceps muscle of arm, performing leg hold, upper trapezius muscle, external oblique abdominal muscle on the side opposite to the hand that performs leg hold and internal oblique muscle on the other side, the part of deep back muscles.
In lifting-drawing hip throw the key movements are made by the concentric work of rectus abdominus muscles and obliques, iliopsoas muscle and upper trapezius muscle on the side opposite the throw direction.
In Kuzure Kata Guruma rectus abdominus muscles and obliques, iliopsoas muscle, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres muscle are the most active in the concentric mode.
Outside leg trip can be effectively performed in case of pronounced activity in the concentric mode of gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus (legs through which the hold is performed), rectus abdominus muscles, obliques, iliopsoas muscle.
During O-Uchi-Gari the pronounced activity of flexor tibia is required: biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, gracilis.
Minor outside reaping (ko sotogari) is performed by the active pectineus, gracilis, musculos adductor longus, musculos adductor brevis, musculos adductor magnus, and then - iliopsoas, sartorius, tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris. Tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus are also active in the static mode.
Performance of Ko Uchi Gake requires first the activity of biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, gracilis, and then gluteus maximus and biceps femoris, hip extensors.
In advanced-foot sweep (okuriashibarai) rectus abdominus muscles and obliques, iliopsoas muscle, part of deep back muscles, gluteus maximus, musculus biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, musculus adductor magnus of the thigh are the most active in the concentric mode.
The main muscles that are active when performing "knee wheel" are pectineus, gracilis, musculus adductor longus, musculus adductor brevis, musculus adductor magnus, rectus abdominis, obliques, iliopsoas muscle.
The basic movements during "uchimata" are performed by the active in the concentric mode rectus abdominus muscles and obliques, iliopsoas muscle, gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus and musculus adductor magnus of the thigh.
Enhancing the performance of basic judo holds during strength training can be associated with increased level of speed-strength and actual strength abilities, as well as strength endurance, associated with the activity of these muscle groups.
Female judokas, "Candidate Masters of Sports" and "Masters of Sports", win fights mainly in case of attacking manner of conducting a fight. While elite female athletes who have won their fights on the Olympics, proved to be more versatile - they did not have any pronounced prevalence of attacking or defensive nature of fight. This makes the speed-strength orientation of strength training somewhat more pronounced, intended mainly to enhance the attack of female judokas to the level of Master of Sports and greatly increases the importance of proper strength abilities of elite female athletes, displayed in the counteraction with an opponent and counters.
The average duration of fight between elite female judokas is significantly longer compared with candidate masters and masters of sport, which determines the increasing role of strength endurance in the structure of special strength fitness with increasing skills in women's judo.
The competition calendar of female judokas at the level of the national team of the Russian Federation in each of the four years of the Olympic cycle, including during the Olympics, has a structure accepting for the application of different in duration options of concentration of strength load.
However, the concentration of strength load to achieve the top level of strength fitness for the biggest competitions of the season (Olympic Games, World Cup, European Championship) prevents from performing in some of the major international competitions or involves performance in them with the reduced level of strength fitness on the background of strenuous strength load.
As a result of the generalization of the objective data on the state of the process of strength training of modern female judokas, specifics of their injuries, morphological differences of female judokas with different skill levels, specifics of muscle activity of elite female judokas in the implementation of basic judo techniques, features of competitive activity of modern female judokas with different skill levels and peculiarities of the competition calendar of elite female judokas, the concept of long-term strength training in women's judo has been elaborated, with the following main provisions:
- The long-term strength training in women's judo is a systemic teaching process, subordinated to the unified logic of organization.
- At the phase of initial training strength training of young female judokas is complex with the use of a large number of means, performed mostly using the game like and the competitive methods, and also by the low intensity impact method at their background distribution in the annual cycle.
- At the phase of initial sports specialization strength training of female judokas, still of integrated nature, also focuses on the "advanced" development of speed-strength abilities and strengthening of muscular-ligamentous apparatus, anticipating an abrupt increase in body mass due to passive fat component in the next phase of training; using the methods of impact efforts of average intensity, dynamic and repeated efforts, circuit training and classic undulating way of organizing strength training.
- At the profound training phase strength training of female judokas is focused mainly on improving speed-strength abilities with the use of high intensity means, development of strength endurance and decrease in fat body mass, as well as on the development of the ability to take great efforts. At this phase, simulator and weight exercises are being introduced, along with the methods of big and maximum efforts in the classical undulating planning of strength load in a year cycle.
- At the phase of improvement of sports skills of female judokas in strength training speed-strength and actual strength abilities and strength endurance continue to be improved, and the volume and intensity of strength training means increase and occasionally reach their values among senior female athletes; exercises with barbell and simulators, techniques of impact, maximum and repeated efforts, various types of interval method are widely used, the method of organization of strength training in a year cycle is classic undulating.
- At the phase of elite sport skills the goal of strength training of female judokas is to achieve the maximum level of special strength fitness for the major competitions using all possible high-intensity methods and techniques, as well as the most effective ways of organizing strength load when developing strength abilities. Special strength fitness is a dynamic state of a female judoka, characterized by levels of development of different strength abilities with the magnitude and ratio corresponding to the nature of competitive activity and varying depending on the individual characteristics of female athletes and the predicted specificity of competitive activity in specific competitions.
Conclusion. The experimental validation of the guidelines of the concept of long-term training in women’s judo at the phases of beginner training, initial specialization, advanced training and improvement of sports skills confirmed their validity. The organization of the process of strength training for female judokas of different skill levels in compliance with objective competitive rules in judo stipulated for the improvement of their strength fitness level, affecting positively the rates of growth of their sports skills.
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