Methodological basis of classification of integrated nonparametric physical exercises (in terms of fitness technologies)

Фотографии: 

O.P. Panfilov, professor, Dr.Biol.
V.V. Borisova, associate professor, Ph.D.
T.A. Shestakova, associate professor, Ph.D.
L.V. Rudneva, associate professor, Ph.D.
Tula state L.N. Tolstoy pedagogical university, Tula

Key words: system approach, intensity zones, integrative mechanisms, prenosological conditions, classification, fitness technologies, nonparametric exercises.

Introduction. Despite all the efforts the tendency of health deterioration of children and adolescents remains. The negative factors affecting health are neuro-psychological and static overloads associated with the educational activities, the use of computer technologies and low level of psychological knowledge of interpersonal communication. The intensification of learning process, pedagogical innovations and the mode of studies are carried out without adequate physiological-hygienic substantiation. That’s why one of the priorities of the Russian Educational System and, particularly, physical education is a clearer organization of health preservation activities inside each educational institution, including the formation of the value of health, healthy lifestyle, culture of physical, mental and social health of children. Today, the great amount of humanitarian knowledge is out of sight of teachers, but the necessity to consider this knowledge in educational and other activity was pointed out by K. D. Ushinsky and I. M. Sechenov.

Classic physical education existing in educational institutions doesn't provide the necessary level of physical and mental development, required in different areas of human life (A.A. Gorelov, A.V. Lotonenko, 2011). Most of experts involved are not prepared for innovations. There is no logical connection in the preschool-school-university system of physical education.

The condition of physical health of children with chronic and congenital diseases is even worse. Today, children with prenosological conditions have no personality-centered physical education in preschool institutions. Later (at school and university), it becomes one of the causes of chronic diseases [1].

Presently, the attention of many experts is drawn to the issues of using fitness in educational institutions. This circumstance is associated with some positive changes in preschool and school physical education. Thus, in secondary school there is the third lesson of physical education, while in preschool - themed, role-playing and other games accompanied with a lot of physical activity. At the same time, the lack of systematization (classification) of a great variety of emotional fitness-technologies with the mixed effect on child's body doesn't provide the proper individual approach in a learning process and the adequate physiological load [4, 8].

We have been carrying out scientific and practical work in kindergartens and primary schools for many years. In May 2013 we examined more than 6500 children (the research is carried out every half a year) from 3 to 11 years old. Proceeding from the analysis of the results, the age of 3,5-4,5-6 years is the most sensitive in the formation of the integrative psychomotor, coordination-motor mechanisms, as well as child’s intellectual and spiritual world in connection with the natural and social environment [10].

Our study is aimed to eliminate the existing contradictions:

  • on the one hand, long-term stagnation of P.E. methods in educational institutions, affecting children's and adolescents' health, on the other hand - unsatisfactory use of modern highly effective sports and educational technologies, proven in improving physical condition of this group of children.
  • on the one hand, available serious developments on this matter for different kinds of people, on the other hand - the lack of systematization and scientific substantiation of the use of fitness-technologies with children of preschool and junior school age.

This fact is one of the obstacles in creation of the basis for personality-centered efficient differentiated use of fitness methods, considering typological characteristics of children in educational institutions.

The purpose of the study was to systemize fitness methods in this sphere of human culture based on the present classifications (V.S. Farfel’, Ya.M. Kotz, A.S. Solodkov and E.B. Sologub) in the system of physical education and modern conceptions in this sphere (M.M. Bezrukih, V.K. Balsevich, V.D. Son’kin, L.I. Lubysheva) and present them in the form of the physiologically approved classification for the use in preschool educational institutions, other educational establishments and in the course of training of experts in physical culture and sport [2, 3, 5].

General approaches of fitness classification for preschool and junior school children. Depending on the amount of active muscle mass which provides the exercise implementation, we classified muscles, according to Ya.M. Kotz (1986), as local (less than one third of total muscle mass is involved in the exercise), regional (30-50% of the muscle mass is involved) and global (over 50% of total active muscle mass is involved) [3]. Taking into account a variety of fitness exercises and age-related morphofunctional features of people, exercises are intended for, the initial unit of the suggested classification is the unit of integrative activity - the functional system (P. K. Anokhin), which includes subsystems. In terms of integrity principle (I.P. Pavlov), this approach enables to suggest that the whole body is involved in doing the exercise of any difficulty, but the main load falls on the subsystems and implementing links. Therefore, in relation with exercise features and different muscle groups, we've added to our classification: local-regional, regional-global and local-global groups of muscles.

Determinative criteria for the proposed classification, taking into account the age of children, are the most characteristic and pronounced for each type of motor (sports) activity:

- biomechanical: depending on the structure of movement - cyclic, acyclic, complex technique, etc. We added to this the complexity of the exercise type with a corresponding coefficient. For example, stretching gymnastics (with a predominant amount of static exercises) and sports and dance rock-and-roll, in which intense dynamic exercises are dominating;

- intensity: differentiation of exercises depending on power zones - maximum, circa-max, submaximal, medium and low power. Taking into account the nature of shifts occurring in the body of children and adolescents, we brought addition to the classification of zones of the relative power (Tab. 1);

- leading physical qualities and the type of motor activity: exercises for strength, speed, agility, endurance, complex coordination and speed-strength. There is a need to consider the sensitive periods of the integrative mechanisms of formation for the development of qualitative aspects of motor activity (O.P. Panfilov et al, 2009);

- criteria of functional support: exercises distinct on the degree of involvement of physiological systems and the muscle mass. This section is supplemented with the degree of variativity of the functional system and the category of exercise complexity.

- energy supply: depending on the prevailing energy source (aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic-anaerobic) and the level of energy loss, connected with the load, complexity and activity of the preceding components.

Fitness classification features, according to morphofunctional and psychological status of children and adolescents. Our own researches [9], the extensive literature data enable to structure the innovative means of physical culture, fitness technologies in accordance with the morphofunctional status of children and to psychophysiologically justify the group classes at the phases of first and second childhood.

Different kinds and characteristics of fitness, their compositions, bundles, elements can be classified according to the age-related maturation of the stipulated mechanisms of children, complexity of movements and degree of physiological shifts [11]. Therefore, there are 6 allocated zones of relative power (difficulty) in performing a fitness exercise to adjust physical and functional loads (Tab. 1).

Table1. The relative power zones classification in accordance with the physiological shifts in performing a fitness exercise by preschool and junior school children

Function indices

Relative intensity zones

Low

Low-increased

Medium

High

Submaximal

Maximum

HR,

bpm

100-110

110-120

126-136

140-156

160-170

170-184

Calculated and real VO2,% of MOC

20-30

 

20-30

30-38

 

28-35

40-45

 

35-40

46-55

 

40-48

56-65

 

50-56

66-74

 

---

Tempo% from maximum

20-40

40-50

50-60

70-80

85-95

92-100

Limit time of the exercise,

min,  sec

20-30

17-25

12-17

6-10

2-4

0,15-0,45


In order to differentiate the means of physical activity the same zones of relative power (difficulty) were allocated including kinds of fitness, distinct by the degree of technical complexity and biodynamic load, and with the progressive complication of the elements, bundles, compositions during the learning process from the 1st to the 4th phase.

Table 2 xontains different types of fitness for the same age group. In this case the intensity of the influence on the body is determined by the technical complexity the exercises and, hence, the degree of physiological shifts. In this regard, they are divided into 6 zones of relative power.

Table 2. Classification feature of the distribution of fitness exercises of different complexity by power zones (first age group)

Types of fitness

Low

Low-increased

Medium

High

Submaximal

Maximum

1 - STRCHG

++++

++++

++

 

 

 

2 - CHRGR

+++

+++

++++

 

 

 

3 - RCRG

++

++++

+++

+

 

 

4 - SDRR

 

++++

++++

++

 

 

Legend:

1 - STRCHG - stretching gymnastics (1st category of complexity);

2 - CHRGR - choreography (2nd category of complexity);

3 - RCRG - rhythm-creative gymnastics (3rd category of complexity);

4 - SDRR - sports and dance rock-and-roll (4th category of complexity).

In order to learn the most difficult elements, bundles and compositions of fitness: choreography, rhythmic and creative gymnastics, sports and dance rock-and-roll first one needs to learn its basic elements. The experience and researches showed that the most effective classes are carried out with the step-by-step use of the means of fitness (considering the age characteristics of children) and in accordance with the basic and special pedagogical principles (Tab. 3).

Table 3. Age-related load intensity of fitness exercises of the 1st category of complexity (stretching gymnastics).

Age groups

Low

Low-increased

Medium

High

Submaximal

Maximum

1-я

++++

+++

+++

 

 

 

2-я

++

++++

++++

++

 

 

3-я

+

++

+++

++++

++

 

4-я

 

++

++

++++

+++

++


Practical implementation of the methodology of learning fitness technologis is possible only with the strict consideration of the regularities of child's body development (systemogenesis) and with understanding of the phased physical and psychomotor formation of functions in accordance with the recommendations of age physiology. The experience and researches showed that the most effective classes are carried out with the step-by-step use of the means of fitness and in accordance with the basic and special pedagogical principles [6, 7].

Differentiation of fitness methods in accordance with the development of integrative psychophysiological mechanisms of movement regulation. Phase 1: children of 4.5-6.0 years old (group 1). Common feature of the morphofunctional maturation is active formation of the integrative mechanisms providing target movements: running, objective actions, complicated integrative forms of motor adaptation. It depends significantly on the formation of the speech-motor apparatus (2nd signal system), expansion of the vocabulary of speech, myelination of the nerve-muscle fibers. Accordingly, for this group of children the most appropriate means will be:

- in stretching - basic elements of active and passive stretching of muscles of mainly upper and lower extremities, selectively - body muscles;

- in choreography - basic positions of hands and feet, combination of extremity movements with body movements, selectively - free plastic movements;

- in rhythmic gymnastics and sports and dance rock-and-roll - adaptive musical rhythmic fitness, musical gaming exercises for learning the basic sense of rhythm, exercises for constructing movements. The musical tempo is mostly slow (maximum tempo - from 80 to 100 accents per minute for children aged 5.5-6.0 years).

Phase 2: age of 6,5-7,5 years. The features of the morphofunctional maturation are the further development of the integrative mechanisms, providing target movements; coordination development of movements of increased complexity (due to myelination of the nerve-muscle fibers); visual feedback; mechanisms of circular regulation. The further development of the connected speech provides comprehension of gaming activities. For this group of children the available and most appropriate means are:

- basic and general stretching of mainly local and local-regional nature with the transition to stretching body and extremity muscles;

- exercises with the combined extremity movements, free movements, the basics of dance movements and bundles, musical literacy, learning dance and music games;

- rhythmic gymnastics and sports and dance rock-and-roll, which includes: dance rhythmic fitness,  variety of dance-rhythmic elements, repositions, rhythmic patterns (bundles), musical and outdoor games. Sports and dance elements of rock-and-roll. The tempo of musical rhythms is slowly increased and average.

Phase 3: age of 8,0-9,5 years. The most pronounced features of the morphofunctional maturation are: development of the movement regulation mechanisms due to the formation of proprioceptive and visual feedback, expansion of the formation of circular regulation mechanisms, development and expansion of the grammatical structure of speech. The means recommended as the most appropriate and effective for this group of children are:

- general stretching of regional and regional-general nature, stretching the body and extremity muscles;

- in choreography - learning of bundles and dances, exercises, steps;

- folk, sports and ballroom dancing: polka, gallop, waltz movements, music games;

- in rhythmic gymnastics and sports and dance rock-and-roll exercises in different tempo and musical time, combined exercises on the ground in pairs. Combination of exercises in image-motor actions.

In general, this phase is designated as the adaptive harmonic phase in the formation of relatively complex dance combinations and bundles. The tempo of musical rhythms is mostly average or above average.

Phase 4: the age of 10-11 years. The structure of child's brain approaches the adult brain. The ratio of oxidative and glycolytic fibers (with the minor exception of fibers of type 2-A and 2-B) in the future remains almost unchanged. During this period a transition is taking place to the dominant role of proprioceptive movement regulation, the understanding of the body scheme expands significantly. For this group of children the most effective fitness methods are:

- variative + basic stretching of general, local-regional and regional-global nature (torso, back, abdomen, extremities muscles);

- in choreography the extension of the basic dance exercises and bundles, based on learned material  - variative improvement of musical games, learning dance compositions;

- in rhythmic gymnastics and sports and dance rock-and-roll - сreative rhythmic fitness, clocking of musical-rhythmic patterns, image-respiratory elements and bundles, image-imitative gymnastics; basics of choreography, creative complexes of sports and dance rock-and-roll. Adapted rhythmic-plastical complex improvisations. The tempo of musical rhythms is mostly above average and average.

The adduced material not only testifies to consistency in teaching children musical-rhythmic technologies, but actualizes expert training at the same time. The designed technologies of the marked orientation are formed within the enriched development of students, presupposing rich educational content, adequate to children’s cognitive interests. The program provided for extensive interaction of learning students with various cultural spheres, such as music, choreography, dances and dramatics, with the focus on creating of individual conditions for complete realization of developmental psychophysical, spiritual and intellectual capabilities.

Modernization of sports education is to be directed to training an expert well informed about the modern methodologies, technologies and competences. The practical experience and the studies we made to estimate efficiency of the applied innovative sports measures and fitness technologies in educational institutions stipulated for allocation of some new conditions essential when settling tasks on the quoted problem.

References

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Author’s contacts: panfilov30@mail.ru