Technology of use of fitness means in psycophysical training of elderly female intellectual workers

Фотографии: 

T.V. Kurova, teacher
Torzhok college of education named after P.F. Badyulin, Torzhok

Key words: motor activity, health, efficiency, fitness technology.

Introduction. The need for keeping labor activity is predetermined by the economic conditions of the country and the set demographic situation (1). Optimality of psychophysical conditions and long creative life are the key conditions of enhancement of the quality of life of retirees in the modern society.

Here much attention to motor activity of elderly people, especially women, is provoked by the intention to work and be in demand in the labor market.

Nowadays there are very few fitness technologies for the retirees, who keep working, to maintain their psychophysical condition longer and to be economically independent. Recently they are advised to attend recreational classes with the use of physical exercises from oriental recreational systems (5, 8, 9 ,12 et al.), but the loads in the recreational classes are too small and the use of recreational physical culture combined with oriental recreational systems are to be experimentally verified (13). Thus, in the practice of work with elderly women the necessity has arisen to use modern, continuously updating recreational means affecting positively an ageing body.

The purpose of the study was the scientific substantiation of the technology of integrated use of specialized developing physical loads in respect to age in view of the specifics of professional intellectual activity of elderly women.

The research methods included: analysis of specialized literature and program documents, survey (questionnaire), pedagogical supervision, time study, pulsometry, psychological and educational testing (tests ... ), set of biomedical techniques (electrocardiography, spirometry, etc.), educational experiment, methods of mathematical statistics.

Elderly women, working in the field of professional intellectual labor were tested to reveal the features of psychophysical and functional conditions of elderly women at the main phase of the educational experiment. The testing involved a set of test blocks and test exercises based on the recommendations of ARSRIPhC etc.

The structure of the diagnostics consisted of following units:        

SECTION I - physical condition

SECTION ІІ – functional status

SECTION ІІІ – mental condition

Results and discussion. Proceeding from the analysis of the literature sources, motor activity, suggesting the presence of optimal loads and the means used, is the primary method that has a beneficial effect on the health and physical working capacity in the elderly age (2,3,10,11,6 ) .

Thanks to the preliminary analysis of health indices of elderly women numerous diseases, including typical for intellectual workers, were established. The most common diseases for elderly female intellectual workers are the ones of the musculoskeletal system (osteochondrosis - 74 %; arthropathies (arthritis, arthrosis, etc.) - 67%), gastrointestinal (44%) and female diseases (48%), phlebeurysm (51%), as well as blurred vision and hypertension (55%). And although the respondents rate their health level as average (70%), they suffer from colds at least 1-2 times per year (74%).

Stressing primarily the importance of physical exercise for health promotion (96,4%), most of female intellectual workers (60 %) also see in motor activity the chance to compensate for their sedentary work. To a lesser extent the choice of classes of physical exercises is defined by the communication (3rd place - 56.6 %) and body built (4th place - 80%), indicating the correct and sustainable value orientation of elderly women on health as a factor that enables to continue working.

The results of long-term researches on this issue (over 8 years) promoted developing and proving experimentally the technology of recreative gymnastics classes with this contingent based on the use of developing methods intended to optimize their psychophysical condition.

Changes in the psychophysical condition of the tested women were objective indices of efficiency of using the designed technology.

Thus, when assessing the level of physical condition (E.A. Pirogova) (LPC) the physical condition of elderly women of the EG is average (0,461 ± 0,05), in the CG it is above the average (0,519 ± 0,04). By the end of the experiment the LPC of women of the EG increases by 70,49 % and corresponds to the high level (0,786 ± 0,03); in the CG this index increases by 5,58% (0,548 ± 0,04).

The analysis of the functional status of the involved by the results of the analysis of the dynamics of BP (blood pressure) of women during recreative gymnastics classes (Fig.) revealed that a slight increase in blood pressure in the subjects of the EG at the beginning of the class normalized at the end. In the CG, on the contrary, BP was consistently high and ranged within the borderline arterial hypertension.  

Fig. The dynamics of blood pressure (BP) of elderly women during different types of recreative gymnastics classes

Such peak loads are not pronounced in the structure of classes of women of the EG. The difference in changes of blood pressure between the EG and the CG is obvious. In the EG blood pressure normalizes after one hour of sessions, while in the CG it remains elevated (EG 127,08 ± 2,70; CG 150,92 ± 4,49). It is obvious that the cardiovascular system of women of the EG is not subject to overload.

At the end of the experiment no significant changes were found in the blood pressure values ​​in women of the CG, and they were significantly higher than in the EG (Tab. 1).

Table 1. Blood pressure indices of women of the experimental and control groups at rest during the educational experiment (mm Hg)

Stat. indices

Experimental group (n=12)

Control group (n=12)

Before experiment

At the end of experiment

Before experiment

At the end of experiment

SP

DP

SP

DP

SP

DP

SP

DP

Хav

139,83

82,08

122,17

79,17

144,58

87,92

146,08

85,17

±m

5,24

1,54

2,32

2,36

3,64

2,33

3,20

2,83

V

14,03

7,00

7,10

11,17

9,41

9,90

8,19

12,44

Reliability of differences

 

Reliable

p≥0,05

Unreliable

p≤0,05

 

Unreliable

p≤0,05

Unreliable

p≤0,05

The positive influence of the experimental technology is confirmed by the use of an array of psychological tests (Tab. 2).

Table №2. Average indices of mental condtion of the subjects during the educational experiment (points)

Test

Stat. indices

Experimental group (n=12)

Control group (n=12)

Intergroup  reliability of differences

10.07

05.08

12.08

05.09

Reliability of differences .

10.07

05.08

12.08

05.09

Reliability of differences

MS

Хср±m

38,50±0,6

36,67±0,7

39,83±1,4

35,25±0,5

Reliable

39,33±0,7

47,08±0,9

48,0±1,3

46,75±1,2

Reliable

Reliable

V

5,91

7,01

13,15

4,86

7,05

7,44

9,89

9,70

SS

Хср±m

2,67±0,3

1,75±0,2

1,67±0,2

1,25±0,2

Reliable

2,75±0,3

2,58±0,2

2,58±0,2

2,5±0,3

Unreliable.

Reliable

V

36,93

35,52

53,26

49,73

41,39

30,70

34,85

43,48

Mental status

MA

Хср±m

13,00±0,9

7,17±0,7

6,08±0,7

6,17±0,6

Reliable

10,92±0,8

11,75±0,7

13,50±0,6

12,08±0,8

Unreliable.

Reliable

V

28,02

34,61

42,32

37,13

26,91

20,57

16,56

25,56

IN

Хср±m

8,50±0,7

6,33±0,4

4,92±0,5

3,59±0,3

Reliable

10,92±0,9

9,75±0,6

10,83±0,5

10,42±0,3

Unreliable

Reliable

V

30,72

22,67

40,17

34,61

30,12

23,60

17,08

11,91

ET

Хср±m

10,00±0,6

4,33±0,3

6,00±0,7

3,33±0,1

Reliable

9,25±0,4

10,58±0,5

12,67±0,6

10,42±0,7

Unreliable

Reliable

V

21,74

28,41

46,06

14,77

16,06

15,84

16,26

26,04

S

Хср±m

12,50±0,6

9,75±0,9

15,17±0,9

9,33±0,8

Reliable

12,42±0,6

13,42±0,6

13,00±0,5

12,00±0,5

Unreliable

Reliable

V

17,23

32,47

22,98

29,38

17,66

15,39

13,12

15,89

CMF

Хср±m

11,17±0,5

5,92±0,6

8,25±0,6

4,33±0,4

Reliable

11,83±0,5

11,17±0,4

12,83±0,5

10,92±0,7

Unreliable

Reliable

V

17,01

34,91

25,91

37,25

16,45

13,68

14,03

23,26

AM

Хср±m

11,50±0,5

11,42±0,5

10,92±0,8

11,25±0,6

Unreliable

10,75±0,5

10,58±0,4

10,42±0,5

10,67±0,5

Unreliable

Unreliable.

V

16,37

17,70

26,04

20,80

17,34

12,39

19,40

15,65

SCI

Хср±m

21,50±0,3

22,42±0,3

21,75±0,3

23,83±0,1

Reliable

21,00±0,5

20,92±0,4

18,75±0,4

17,42±0,5

Reliable

Reliable

V

5,43

4,83

5,23

1,63

8,85

6,59

8,24

9,93

 

Note: MS – mental stress; SC – state of stress; MA – mental activation; IN – interest; ET- emotional tone; S – stress; CMF-comfort; AM – achievement motivation; SCI – selectivity, attention concentration, interference immunity.

So, according to the mental stress scale (MS) by T.A. Nemchin (14), the analysis of the test results of the subjects at the initial phase of the experiment has shown (Tab. 3), that regarding MS they have small mental stress (with the range of 30-50 points) EG 38,50±0,61; CG 39,33±0,74. At the final phase of the study the MS level decreased significantly among women of the EG (35,25±0,46) and increased remarkably in the CG (46,75±1,21). 

When diagnosing the "state of stress" (Karl Schreiner) (7) the best result was obtained by the subjects of the EG 1,25 ± 0,17; CG 2,50 ± 0,29. (the differences are statistically significant).

The indices of mental activation (MA), interest (IN), emotional tone (ET), stress (S) and comfort (CMF) (N.A. Kurgansky; T.A. Nemchin) (14) formed the integral view of the mental sphere of the subjects. The results of the experimental group by the end of the study indicate the high degree of mental activation, interest, emotional tone and comfort (3-8 points). The stress index decreased, although remained moderately pronounced. In the control group, on the contrary, there were no positive changes in the mental sphere.

G. Münsterberg’s test (SCI) (7) proposed to women in both of the groups showed that all working women have good selectivity and concentration, regardless of the elderly age. Nevertheless, by the end of the experiment the women of the EG improved their result by 10.8 %, in the CG it dropped by 17.1%.

Regarding the "rating scale of achievement motivation” (AM) (Yu.M. Orlov, 1978) (15) the examined women are at the level within the range from low to average. An interesting fact is that this index has not changed during the experiment (EG 11,50 ± 0,50; CG 10,75 ± 0,50; at the end EG 11,25 ± 0,63; CG 10,67 ± 0 ,45). This scale has not shown the high level of achievement motivation among women in both of the groups. The same result was obtained when testing women aged 25-55 years, involved in professional intellectual activity. Many of them are quite successful in life. Based on these results we can assume that the high level of achievement motivation is not typical for examined women.

Conclusion. Thus, the experimental technology of recreative gymnastics classes, based on the use of developing loads for elderly female professional intellectual workers, facilitates significant enhancement of their psychophysical conditions and therefore health potential and physical working capacity. High motivation of women to classes of recreative gymnastics in respect to age and in accordance with the specifics of professional intellectual activity stipulates for more efficient correction and deceleration of involutional changes and favorable influence on their emotional state.

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