A.S. Makhov, associate professor, Ph.D.
Shuya branch of Ivanovo state university, Shuya
Key words: principle, management, development, adaptive sport, handicapped persons.
Introduction. Promotion of activities with the handicapped in the adaptive sports sphere is, undoubtedly, of great social value. Nevertheless, by now we have to admit that the process of development of sport for the handicapped is being poorly managed in our country, which is proved by the lack of methods, functions and principles of management of development of adaptive sport. The management principles of development of adaptive sport are the primitive rules stipulating for the transformation of the system of adaptive sport into a new, more qualitative state.
Materials and methods. The research methods involved to specify the general (universal) principles of management and determine the essence of special management principles of development of adaptive sport were as follows:
- analysis and synthesis of literature sources;
- content analysis of regulatory and advisory acts, meant to control international, regional and national activities in adaptive sport, legislative and subordinate acts to be followed when taking actions in the sphere of adaptive sport in the Russian Federation;
- pedagogical observations on the operation of the system of adaptive sport and training and competitive activities of handicapped athletes;
- polls (conversations, interviews) of public officials, training faculty, team members, volunteers and judges in adaptive sport;
- content analysis of the information from billboards and promo information stands of adaptive sports organizations; legal and manager advice;
- personal experience in the system of sport for the handicapped.
Results and discussion. The results of the studies of Russian and foreign authors in the area of classical management , ,  management in education , , ,  management and marketing in the sphere of physical culture and sport , , , , , ,  et al.), applied to the needs of management of development of adaptive sport in Russia, stipulated for allocating and specifying of the common (universal) management principles:
1. The principle of consistency considers adaptive sport as a system – an integral combination of government and public organizations acting for the purpose of social adaptation, physical rehabilitation of the handicapped and development of adaptive sport in the Russian Federation.
The elements of this system are such adaptive sports subjects as state authorities in the area (including Ministry of sport, sports and tourism committees, ministries and departments of subjects of the Federation, Council for the disabled), public organizations for sport for the handicapped (Russian Paralympic Committee and its regional departments, federations, unions, centers and associations of adaptive sport), organizations (including educational, social management and public health), implementing within their jurisdiction the programs of physical training and adaptive sports activities with the handicapped.
These elements are hierarchically and functionally systematized, correlated and are in close cooperation with each other and external environment, directed toward obtaining the goals of development of adaptive sport (making it more accessible and large-scale, enhancing the quality of physical training and sports activities, quality of life, social prosperity, psychophysical condition, sports skills and achievements of the handicapped).
2. The principle of scientific validity and adequacy presupposes implementing of managerial actions (functions) based on the latest achievements in science (first of all, in the field of management, general, remedial and sports pedagogics and psychology) and science-based methods and approaches, making decisions adequate to set situations of managerial solutions based on the relevant, up-to-date, reliable, full and objective information.
3. The principle of optimality and efficiency of management of development of adaptive sport means achieving set goals of development as soon as possible at the least input of work, financial, material and technical, manpower and other resources.
4. The principle of regulation of management presupposes managerial actions in the adaptive sports sphere (and specifically for its development) in compliance with the active regulations and legislation.
Management in the field of sport for the handicapped is regulated by the documents (here are the basic ones): Federal law 04.12.2007 № 329-FL “Concerning physical culture and sport in the Russian Federation”, Federal law 19.05.1995 №82-FL (ed. 23.07.2008) “Concerning non-governmental organizations”, Federal law 10.07.1992 № 3266-1 (as at present in force) “Concerning education in the Russian Federation”, Federal law 02.08.1995 edited in 22.08.2004 “Concerning social service of elderly people and the handicapped”, Federal law 24.11.1995 № 181-FL “Concerning protection for disabled persons in the Russian Federation”, Federal law 12.01.1996 № 7-FL “Concerning non-profit organizations”, Model law 25.11.2008 № 31-13 “Concerning paralympic sport”, Civil code of the Russian Federation (Part one) 30.11.1994 №51-FL, the strategy of development of physical culture and sport in the Russian Federation till 2020 etc.
The examples of the regulations in the adaptive sports sphere are as follows:
- standards – ISO, GOST (All-Union state standards), technical specifications and building requirements, regulating characteristics and condition of sports facilities, sports and technological equipment and inventory;
- guidelines of the Ministry of sport and tourism RF on enforcing the accessibility requirements in services for the handicapped and other physically challenged people in accordance with the factors holding up accessibility of services in the sphere of sport and tourism;
- statements on physical training and sports organizations, sports competitions, assigning of sports and trainer's titles, judges’ certifications.
Proceeding from the specificity of the adaptive sports sphere, the essence of special management principles of its development are as follows:
1. The principle of harmonizing public and national interests and need of the handicapped, presupposing the view of interests of state, family, public organizations and institutes – on the one hand, and natural and social needs and sports interests of representatives of different nosological groups, their opinion in setting goals, tasks, ways of organization, the essence and technologies of mass physical training and educational and sports activity with the handicapped – on the other.
2. The principle of efficient centralization in management of adaptive sport – optimal distribution of authority when adopting managerial solutions and efficient combination of undivided authority and cooperation in management.
The essence of this principle is as follows:
- top management in sport for the handicapped (Ministry of sport, Russian Paralympic Committee, federations, unions and associations of adaptive sport etc.) deals with global (international, interregional, sectoral), strategical issues, lower management (organizations responsible for implementation of programs of physical training and sports activity with the handicapped) - with regional and local issues;
- an administrator of every level of management of adaptive sport is entitled to taking individual decisions in the issues in his competence and delegate some of his responsibilities, rights and liability to his subordinates (among professional personnel);
- every managerial solution in the adaptive sports sphere is to be made jointly – namely collectively taking into account the views of administrators of different levels, specialists (experts), executors (coaching staff of sports organizations, sports referees, volunteers et al.) and handicapped athletes, if required;
- the responsibility for joint managerial decisions is assumed by an administrator, where every official is responsible for executing scheduled actions and works.
3. The feedback principle – continuous monitoring of responses of the control object to all managerial actions being taken on the part of the agent of management.
The examples of forms of feedback in the system of adaptive sport can be as follows: consideration of material and technical, financial, personnel and other support of a physical training and sports organization, index of quality of physical training and sports activity, dynamics of individual physical fitness characteristics of the engaged ones, volume and quality of mastered motor actions, the number of sports prizes etc.
4. The humanization principle implies:
- recognizing of the handicapped as equal members of society;
- choosing goals, form and methods of organization (including the ways of interaction with the engaged ones), ways and means of sports training in respect to value orientations, goal sets, sports interests, needs and ambitions, as well as nosology, degree of pathology, physical condition, motor experience and potential, intellectual and personality psychological characteristics of handicapped athletes;
- enabling handicapped athletes to collaborate in making and implementing managerial decisions in the adaptive sports sphere.
5. The principle of government assistance in development of adaptive sport. According to this principle, state is responsible for legal, economic, social and other support of development of adaptive sport in our country, support of the Paralympic movement.
This principle is fixed in the Federal laws “Concerning physical culture and sport in the Russian Federation”, “Concerning social service for elderly citizens and the handicapped”, “Concerning protection for disabled persons in the Russian Federation”, the Model law “Concerning paralympic sport” etc. Apart from standard legal acts, the main forms of government assistance of adaptive sport are fixed in the strategy of development of physical culture and sport of the Russian Federation till 2020, Government program of the Russian Federation “Accessibility” for 2011-2015, The concept of training of the Russian national team for XI Paralympic winter games in Sochi, programs and plans of regional collaboration in government programs for development of adaptive sport. Here the most remarkable are the following:
- legal regulation of activity of the sphere of adaptive sport and its management; legal assistance of subjects of sport of the handicapped;
- financing of the system of sport of the handicapped;
- ensuring favorable investment climate, formation of extra-budgetary funds of adaptive sport and organizational assistance of their activity;
- enforcing accessibility requirements for sports objects and services to the handicapped and other physically challenged people;
- information and communication support of sport for the handicapped: coverage of sports events in mass media, educational activities and promotion of adaptive sport and healthy way of life among the handicapped;
- researching on the issues of sport for the handicapped;
- determining priority directions of training and education (retraining, professional development) of personnel in the sphere of adaptive sport.
Conclusions. Thus, the process of management of development of adaptive sport is based on the consistency, optimality and efficiency principles; as well as scientific validity and adequacy; combination in management of public and national interests and needs of the handicapped; efficient centralization; regulation of management; feedback; humanization and government assistance.
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