Fitness training in the system of physical education of students

Фотографии: 

L.A. Volobaeva, associate professor
S.R. Gilazieva, associate professor, Ph.D.
Orenburg State University, Orenburg

Key words: fitness training, physical fitness, motor activity.

Physical education in higher educational institutions is an essential part of education. The quality of the organization and conduct of classes with students affect their fitness and health levels and the relationship to physical education after high education institutions. The analysis of the current state of physical education of Russian students proves to be far from efficient. The current state of people’s culture and lifestyle, the level of national physical culture and sports in the Russian Federation do not match the national and social needs [1].

In higher educational institutions on physical culture classes are focused mainly on bodily, physical development, but not perception and understanding of the values ​​of physical culture. The attention is primarily paid not to knowledge, but external, specific quantitative indices, qualification, but not formation of culture, mastering of knowledge [2].

Standards and tests stipulated by curricula, but not a student and his value orientations and needs remain the center of attention in the activity of the university departments of physical education. Experts mention the need to find new innovative technologies for organization of physical education classes in a university. Fitness training can be one of such types of motor activity.

Fitness is a variety of physical activities, all kinds of effective but gentle loading, balanced diet intended to shape body, maintain optimal weight and promote health.

Today, fitness training is not just recreative gymnastics or a fashionable way to keep fit but a new sport. Various competitions have been held since long ago in the world. The requirements and standards are adopted. Surely, there are special curricula, designed by The Federation of International Sports, Aerobics and Fitness (FISAF). The Federation of sports aerobics of Russia has adapted these curricula, developed a set of seminars, after which internationally recognized certificates are issued, acknowledged in 47 countries. Instructors of group fitness programs, water fitness programs, gym, personal trainers, managers in the fitness sphere and judges are being trained within these seminars.

The demand for fitness services is growing at a great rate: in 2002 approximately 1,2 % of Russian citizens were fitness club members, but last year it was already 37 %.

Fitness training helps to avoid the devastating effect of multiple age-related diseases. Many of the age-related problems are not relating to diseases, but to the loss of physical shape.

The 8 year long study of 10224 men and 3120 women, held in the Institute for Aerobics Research in Dallas, showed that the incidence rate was the highest in the group of the least trained persons and the lowest in the group of the most fit persons.

According to Balsevich V.K., physical activity contributes to your longer life. Proceeding from the research which involved Harvard graduates, persons who burnt 2000 and more calories per week for such activities as walking, climbing stairs and playing sports, lived longer than those who burnt less than 2000 calories per week at physical activity. And those who burnt more than 3500 calories a week at it lived longer than others [1]. The Harvard study also proved that persons engaged in physical culture, had a 31% lower chance to die from a heart attack, stroke and other cardiovascular diseases than those of their course mates leading a sedentary life.

The analysis of numerous studies on physical education suggested that the students’ motivation and sports and fitness activities can be increased in case of comprehensive providing of the implemented program with methodical, information, human and material resources; provided the variety of offered methods and forms of classes - from sports to fitness and rehabilitation and even entertaining, at optimal stimulation of the need for such activity from heads of the department [5].

There were many researches that proved the need for fitness training sessions. We also decided to conduct our own research based on the OSU involving 120 students from the shaping group headed by Volobaeva L.A.

The purpose of the study was to enhance the system of physical education of students.

The objectives were as follows:    

1) to examine the possibilities of using fitness technologies to increase the efficiency of physical education of female university students;

2)  to determine experimentally the effectiveness of using fitness technologies in physical education of female university students;

3) to detect the effect of fitness trainings on the formation of the interest of female students in the form of physical education classes.

Materials and methods. The research methods included theoretical analysis and generalization, teacher’s observation, searching educational experiment using instrumental techniques, questionnaire and method of economic analysis.

The teacher’s observation was held to clarify the training effect of the fitness program on the body of female students of OSU and was attended by 130 female students.

The experimental (EG) and the control group (CG) of students 115 people each were formed to conduct the searching experiment using the random sample method. There have not been detected any significant differences between the students of both of the groups in the physical fitness level (Table 1, 2) prior to the educational experiment. The classes were held as scheduled from October 2011 till May 2012 of the academic year.

Table 1. Physical fitness indices of female students of OSU before the educational experiment (n= 60)

Indices

Experimental group

Control group

1

100 m distance running (sec)

17,4±0,89

17,4±0,5

2

Standing long jump (cm)

168,5±7,5

163,0±6,8

3

Sit-ups per 1 min. (reps)       

26±9

23±6

4

4x9 m shuttle run (sec)

11,78±0,54

11,98±0,47

5

Angle body from sitting position (cm)

10±4

10±4

6

Chin-up (reps)

12±8

13±4

Table 2. Physiological indices of female students of OSU before the educational experiment (n= 60)

Indices

Experimental group

Control group

1

Chest circumference (cm)       

100±10

100±9

2

Waist circumference (cm)

80±15

78±14

3

Hip circumference (cm)

110±15

112±15

 Female students of the CG attended traditional physical education classes, arranged by the university curriculum.

Female students of the EG performed a set of fitness training exercises. The elastic band GymVand, step platforms and dumbbells can be used to increase the effectiveness of the exercises being done. GymVand has especially wide range of opportunities when training the problem parts of the body such as buttocks, legs, chest, back and arms. There is hardly another such kind that can help so quickly to form beautiful proportions.

Classes were held at the university twice a week for 1.5 hours. The average group HR was in the range of 130,0 - 147,8 bpm for approximately 60 min of the class, which testifies to the aerobic impact of fitness training on a student's organism. The loading dynamics and intensity as a whole meet the classical requirements to physical education classes, namely gradual warming-up at the beginning of a class, undulatory changing intensity of training impacts to achieve maximum indices in the middle and active recovery in the final part.

To improve the heart circulation heart rate should be within the average zone (120-165 bpm). For optimal fat burning it is enough if the pulse rate will be at the upper limit of the lower zone (120-100 bpm). The pulse of professional athletes is in the upper zone (165-190 bpm).

The experiment was conducted to study the possibility of using fitness training in physical education of female university students. The analysis of the state of physical fitness of female students of the CG and the EG shows no significant differences prior to the experiment in accordance with the results of control procedures. The study of inter-group differences at the end of the experiment shows that female students of the EG had more pronounced significant positive changes in four indicators of the quality of physical education classes (Tab. 3). It should be noted that at the end of the experiment female students of the EG were far ahead of their fellow students from the CG in the test "Angle body from sitting proposition".

They also had an advantage over the female students of the CG in the level of development of strength endurance (sit-ups per 1 min). With a high degree of reliability female students of the EG had an advantage over the female students of the CG in class attendance, which is consistent with experts’ data concerning the increase of the young students’ interest in unconventional physical exercises. This gives reason to hope for more active use of the means of physical culture to preserve health and physical work capacity in the further life.

Table 3. Physical fitness indices of female students of OSU at the end of the educational experiment (n= 60)

Indices

Experimental group

Control group

 

1

100 m distance running (sec)

16,2±1

16,8±0,3

 

2

Standing long jump (cm)

179,50±13,5

173,00±13,8

 

3

Sit-ups per 1 min. (reps)     

40±9

35±6

4

4x9 m shuttle run (sec)

10,20±0,41

10,00±0,30

5

Angle body from sitting position (cm)

21±6

16±6

6

Chin-up (reps)

16±4

13±5

Table 4. Physiological indices of female students of OSU at the end of the educational experiment (n= 60)

Indices

Experimental group

Control group

1

Chest circumference (cm)  

100±10

100±9

2

Waist circumference (cm)

75±10

78±13

3

Hip circumference (cm)

105±15

110±15

Female students of the CG had an advantage over their fellow students from the EG only in one indicator - the results in 4x9 m shuttle run. This is natural, as in the lessons of physical education by the university curriculum sports games including run with changing direction are dominating. In other physical fitness indices there have not been revealed any significant differences between female students of the CG and the EG. Moreover, regular fitness training sessions helped female students to reduce their body weight, improved their posture, gait, movements became more harmonious and aesthetic, which was good for the girls’ appearance.

Thus, higher growth rates of fitness of female students in the EG, rather than CG, and more responsible attitude to attendance of physical education classes will enable teachers to estimate much higher the way how female students fulfill the curricula requirements.

Female students were interrogated using a questionnaire to consider the ways of increase of the interest in physical education classes. Responses to the survey question are presented in the chart.

Chart. The interest of female students in types of motor activity

The obtained results strongly suggest that the use of fitness training in fixed physical education classes promoted a significant increase of interest of female students in motor activity.

Modern innovations in the field of education open up opportunities and help to create the conditions for systematic work on creation of health-protecting environment and formation of health culture using fitness training [3].

The ​​systematic and structural-functional approaches, the essential conditions of the concepts of physical training (physical culture) and physical education laid the methodological basis for designing the model process of physical education classes in the possibility of using fitness technologies to improve the efficiency of physical education classes of female university students [4].

The systematic approach to the study of the use of fitness technologies is not always used. And paired and naturally multidimensional methods are often applied separately. This paper presents the system data processing that unites these studies in one along with the construction of appropriate models.

The data are presented for the respective groups (Tab. 5), characterizing the introduction in the software and content-related support of the process of physical education of a significant amount of knowledge based on the integration of various knowledge about human health, healthy way of life, destruction of negative attitude to physical culture, thus emphasizing the unity of students' cognitive and motor activities, which was achieved by using various forms of "knowledge presentation" as mentioned above.

Table 5. The indices of studies of use of fitness technologies in the forming educational experiment.

Content of knowledge and their assessment

Experimental groups ( n = 60)

М ±m

Control group (n = 60)

М ±m

   Р,%

1. The role and objectives of

physical culture

4.3± 0.39

4.0±0.44

0.05

2. The basics of methodology of independent performance of physical exercises

4.4±0.32

3.8±0.48

0.05

3. The basics of healthy way of life

4.3±0.27

3.7±0.42

0.05

4. The basics of autogenic and mental self-regulation

4.2±0.42

3.1±0.51

0.05

5. The basics of self-control when doing physical exercises

4.5±0.42

3.3±0.39

0.05

6. The basics of theory and methodology of physical education

4.4±0.34

4.2±0.31

0.05

Overall assessment

4.35±0.36

3.68±0.42

    0.05

  Note: index Р> 0.05 at t 2.1

In addition to the above a correlation analysis was performed, which showed (Fig. 1.) that prior to the experiment the component № 6 (the basic theory and methodology of physical education) was not related with other components. The lack of correlation is due to insufficient knowledge of the bases of the theory and methodology of physical education.

The situation has changed after the experiment, which is the result of conducted interviews, practical classes, i.e. as a result of the educational experiment the students’ level of physical culture and sports knowledge, skills has increased along with their practical use, cultivation, and health promotion. Consequently, the groups described are under the influence of certain factors that form the students’ conscious attitude to the theoretical and practical aspects of physical education, in order to use fitness technologies.

Figure. The diagram of correlations of using fitness technologies in physical education of students.

Based on the above database using principal component analysis (PCA) a table is made in which factor loading and factors’ significance are displayed in percentage of the total set of factors. The critical value for factor loading is 0.3494, i.e. the value of the last ones above critical indicates the chance of getting a type I error (in 95% cases - the true value and only in 5% - error), alternatively you can get a type II error (95% - error, 5% - truth).

The mathematical processing of the experimental data has revealed three significant factors, which together cover 82% of the primary characteristics (the proportion of variance in the smallest of the factors is equal to 10.67%). Factor significance of the indices is presented in Table 2.

Table 6. The results of the factor analysis of using fitness technologies in physical education of students (after the experiment).

 

 

fact

The role and objectives of physical culture

The basics of methodology of conducting independent physical exercises

The basics of healthy way of life

The basics of self-control when doing physical exercises

The basics of autogenic and mental self-regulation

The basics of theory and methodology of physical education

 

 

%

1

0.43

0.37

0.38

0.43

0.47

0.37

60.2

2

-

-

0.35

-0.57

-0.44

0.56

11.2

3

-0.46

0.79

-0.40

-

-

-

10.7

As seen from the Table 6, the first factor is positively correlated with all indices and is significant for 60.2 %. It identifies three groups of students in view of their knowledge, including with average level, high and average. Conventionally, this factor is called "Factor of use of fitness technologies in physical education of students".

The group structure obtained actually preserved after the experiment that can characterize students' receptivity to software and content-related support of the process of physical education of a significant amount of knowledge and a healthy way of life, destruction of negative attitude to physical culture.

The above is proved by the distribution of the second and the third factors ("significance" 11.2 %, 10.7 %), it is positively correlated with the indices of "Basic theory and methodology of physical education" and "The basics of healthy way of life" and negatively with "The basics of self-control when doing physical exercises" and "The basics of autogenic and mental self-regulation". Like the 1st one it divided students into two groups, a control group tends to the theoretical part, while the experimental – to practical one. Obviously, the experimental groups of students were more prepared (statistically significantly) on the use of physical culture values ​​in daily and professional life and activities, on the basics of psychohygienic self-regulation, i.e. acquired specific professional knowledge on relaying of physical culture in life and work of their subordinates.

This results in the conclusion that students in the experimental groups master knowledge much better rather than those from the control group both in absolute (4.52 vs. 4) and the percentage expression (by 11.5 %). Moreover, students the experimental group were proved to be more prepared regarding the knowledge of the basics of healthy way of life and methodology of conducting independent physical exercises.

Conclusions:

1. According to the dynamics of functional loading a set of fitness training exercises meets the recommendations of the leading industry experts regarding physical exercises.

2. Loadings are in the training impact zone (122,8-172,6 bpm) by the level of functional activity of the cardiovascular system when performing fitness-programs.

3. Fitness training has a positive effect on the development of strength qualities and flexibility, attractive for its structure and content, facilitated the increase of knowledge on personal physical culture, but not enough to develop speed and strength qualities.

4. Fitness trainings contribute to increased interest in fixed physical education classes, as evidenced by the high rating of fitness by the results of the questionnaire of female students.

5. Fitness trainings can contribute to improvement of physical fitness and health of female students, as they make it possible to differentiate training impacts in accordance with the individual level of physical and functional fitness and functional training of each student and meet their needs in motor activity.

6. For the wide application of fitness technologies in the form of fixed physical education classes curricula should be developed that fully meet the regulatory requirements concerning the duration and content of classes, and supplemented with speed and strength and overall endurance exercises.

Thus, students' physical fitness can be obtained by transforming the present system of physical education, rejection of the unified and compulsory program of development of personal physical culture. The conflict of the physical fitness level of students, on the one hand, and modern requirements of production, on the other, can be resolved only in case of recognizing the need to individualize and differentiate students' physical education and the need of students to learn various types of motor activity.

References

  1. Balsevich V.K. Theory and technology of sports-centered physical education at mass comprehensive school / V.K. Balsevich, L.I. Lubysheva // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. 2005. - № 5.
  2. Vydrin, V.M. Sport in the modern society. Moscow: FiS, 1980, 120 P.
  3. Gilazieva, S.R. Health status of senior people of the South Uralians / S.R. Gilazieva // Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. - 2009. – Spec. iss. October – P. 657-660.
  4. Gilazieva, S.R. Professional sports competency indices of the senior population / S.R. Gilazieva // Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. - 2012. – Iss 2(138), February. – P. 38.
  5. Kalina, I.G. Individual motor programs in the practice of formation of teachers’ professional health / I.G. Kalina // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury kultury. № 5, 2005.

Author’s contacts: Volobaeva Lyudmila Andreevna Mob. Ph.: 89225329651; gecean@mail.ru