Motor variability as a factor of increase of athlete’s fitness level



A.V. Gursky, associate professor, Ph.D.
Smolensk state academy of physical culture, sport and tourism, Smolensk

Key words: variation, motor action, training, physical qualities.

Sports result is an integral index of manifold constituents of different types of training such as theoretical, physical, technical, tactical and psychological. The contribution of each of them is essential and the frequency of their use depends on athlete’s qualification and individual characteristics. Most of the training time is dedicated to physical training with the focus on functional one which is especially important in endurance sports. In its turn, the concepts of volume and intensity of training load must be the most essential characteristics of the sports training system. They, when varied, render different effect on various body energy supply systems. We develop athlete’s aerobic abilities using extensional, long-term loads. Body anaerobic abilities are developed by means of strenuous short (up to 3-5 min) loads. Short in time (up to 30 s) but intensive speed and strength exercises train the phosphocreatine (alactate) zone of energy supply. As proved by experiments, the contribution of each of the systems of energy supply is important in the course of a competitive race of racing skiers (V.S. Farfel’, N.I. Volkov, I.G. Ogol’tsov, V.N. Manzhosov) with the dominant role of athlete’s aerobic abilities. Cross country ski race is a cyclic sport presupposing development of endurance, shown in the ability to transport oxygen to working muscles, where the volume of circulating blood and ability to utilize oxygen by working muscles will be crucial.

Oxygen supply to working muscles must be one of the basic functions of athlete’s body, especially in endurance sports. So we shall try to analyze and establish the way technical training affects athlete’s system of muscle energy supply. Undoubtedly, all training types (functional, physical, tactical, psychological) are focused on athlete’s motor action both in training and within competitive activity.

One has to agree with, as we believe, the apt turn of the phrase by professor D.D. Donskoy “that all training systems come out of athlete’s motor technique” (D.D. Donskoy, 1972). Rational, lean and effective motor technique is possible only at the due level of development of physical qualities and motor abilities: strength, agility, endurance, flexibility and dexterity. Adequate by strength take-offs and push-offs performed in a certain time mode and all the distance long are the requirement to speed and strength abilities. Movements made with the adequate amplitude, depending on flexibility, and steady descents, where dexterity is a must, confirm the dependence of motor technique and level of development of athlete’s physical qualities and functional abilities. The quoted dependence is objective and undoubted. Athlete’s technique is not only the right form of movements, sometimes estimated by the notions “beautiful” or “not beautiful”, but a set of movements with direct relation and feedback with athlete’s fitness level (physical, functional, tactical). Herewith, one should take into account that motor technique, in its turn, forms athlete’s fitness in two ways.

The incorrect, wrong motor technique transformed into a motor skill will result in underdevelopment of some grounds of muscles that are to be trained for correct (rational, economical, efficient) motor technique. This will be the feedback, when motor technique promotes formation of physical qualities, which is especially remarkable when a competitive exercise is used as a key training method for a long time.

This conclusion is not only of theoretical value, but significantly affects the practice of sports training, not only in view of faults in athlete’s technical skills, but in the effect of objective factors on a motor technique. Weather conditions are the first to render an essential influence on the state of ski track in сross country ski race. Despite the machine preparations of ski tracks, it can be either soft, in case of fresh snow, or firm as ice, especially in case of artificial snow on a track.

The purpose of the study was to approve the role of sports technique as a factor of improvement of athlete’s fitness level.

Results and discussion. Proceeding from the studies, on a soft ski track athlete will have to take off slower than on a firm, rolled ski track. So, in classic skating steps elite racing skiers perform a take-off within 0,11-0,12 sec on a firm ski track and 0,14-0,16 sec on a soft one. The variance is 25% (V.V. Ermakov, A.V. Pirog, L.F. Kobzeva, A.V. Gursky, 1970-2000). Thus, the neuromuscular apparatus responsible for take-off, push-off and swings will be formed in a slower mode on a soft ski track and will need some time to adjust. Something similar occurs when skiing at different speed. As proved by the researchers (V.V. Ermakov, K.K. Zilmer, A.V. Gursky), increase of the travel speed from 3,0 to 6,0 mps in classic skating steps promotes decrease of the time of take-off from 0,170 to 0,117 sec (by 31,2%), and lung speed - from 5,75 mps to 11,05 mps (52,0%). Thus, long movements at low speed result in the loss of athlete’s speed and strength qualities, which is especially typical for the phase of starting skiing.

And it is important that it is a special skill but not general speed and strength preparedness that is to be developed. A set of exercises close by motor structure to competitive exercise is to be selected, and muscles work routine should correspond or exceed skiing intensity. Certainly, the main task of training of a racing skier is to develop aerobic abilities, and long trainings are of primary importance, but the content and development of special speed and strength qualities are crucial and necessary too.

Variability of motor skills as an adaptive response to external and internal factors has its certain limits and is very specific. The time range of performance of a motor action transformed into a skill forms the state of neuromuscular apparatus to specific time of response and its overrange will impair achievement of the purpose of action.

So we should remember the concept “athlete’s sports fitness”. Professor A.P. Bondarcuk believes that fitness status as the best combination of different body systems within competitive activity is very selective and is formed related to completely specific methods, exercises and one has to agree with it. It is to be marked that kinematic and dynamic motor structures will affect an athlete’s state even in the same exercise, so the mode and intensity of applied method is essential, since it is the training mode that is in charge of the subtle response mechanism of the neuromuscular apparatus responsible for cellular energy supply.

Conclusions. At the common tendency to increase of the volume of special work with growth of sports mastery both objective conditions of execution of a competitive exercise in a training process, that should be brought more in line with conditions of forthcoming competitions, and intensity of exercises are important. Long low-intensity work stipulates the loss of speed and strength qualities and will make it impossible to perform motor actions on a proper level, which is important in the modern competitive activity of racing skiers.


  1. Bondarchuk, A.P. Periodization of sports training. Kiev. Olimpiyskaya literatura, 2005, 302 P. (In Russian)
  2. Donskoy, D.D. Biomechanical characteristics of athletes’ fitness. – In: Proceedings of the XII All-Union scientific conference on psychology, morphology, biomechanics and biochemistry of muscle work (Lvov, 1972). Lvov, 1972, P. 231-232. (In Russian)
  3. Ermakov, V.V. Technique of skating steps. Study guide. Smolensk, 1989, 76 P. (In Russian)
  4. Manzhosov, V.N., Ogol’tsov, I.G. Variation of technique of alternate double skating step. – In: Lyzhny sport. Moscow: Fizkultura i sport, 1975, № 1, P. 28-33. (In Russian)
  5. Farfel’, V.S. Movement control in sport. Moscow: 2011, Sovetsky sport, 201 P. (In Russian)
  6. Zilmer, K.K. The study of the effect of travel speed on the technique of racing skiers of different qualifications: abstract of Ph.D. thesis. – Tartu, 1975. – 29 P. - Tartu state university. (In Russian)

Author’s contacts: