Sports pedagogics in information society

Sports pedagogics in information society


E.N. Skarzhinskaya, Ph.D.
Moscow state academy of physical culture, Malakhovka, the Moscow region
M.A. Novoselova, associate professor, Ph.D.
Russian state university of physical culture, sport, youth and tourism (SCOLIPC), Moscow
A.D. Borisov, director of sports club MSTU Stankin, Moscow

Key words: pedagogics, physical culture, mind sports, society.

Introduction. Nowadays the theory of post-industrial or information society [9] is dominant, Its theoretical issues were worked in the "Strategy of information society development in the Russian Federation" [8] and State program of the Russian Federation "Information society (2011-2020)" [8]. Social transformation embraces the main spheres of human life activity and provokes the immanent tendency to reconsideration of educational technologies [4].

In the information society most of the people are busy in the information sector of economy, with information as the main produce and intelligence as a dominant personal characteristic of data handling at decision making. Herewith, intellectual work is interconnected with skills of mastering of information and communicative technologies as the principal material and technical conditions of accumulation, storage and transfer of information. So fundamental social changes like social structure are the focus of attention of the teaching community on intelligence formation and information and communicative competences, and sports pedagogics cannot ignore this objective situation [14].

The purpose of the study was theoretical approval of development of mind sports.      

Theoretically and practically teachers actively develop educational technologies of intellectual education on different methodological positions. Most often, didactic games as a form of classes are recommended for educational communities, including with the active use of computer facilities [12]. The question of choosing the conceptual essence of games remains debatable. Provision of specific educational information not always facilitates development of abstract thinking, practically feasible decision-making and other, equally important manifestations of intelligence. In this case, the use of logical/mind games is recommended as an aid of intelligence development, often in the form of an elective class or extended education [3]. The value potential of mind games is accumulated in sports pedagogics. This is due to the fact that some mind games after getting sports institutionalization are developed in the new way - as mind sports as a part of sport in general, with all the sociocultural manifestations.

The introduction of mind sports into the educational process using information communicative technologies is an important theoretical and practical problem.

Research is complex and needs scientists, government officials, government officials, public figures, athletes and teachers to be consolidated.

Organization of research. The educational experiment is being held at the moment and will last till 2016. It includes comprehensive measures "Moscow Mind Games" for students and pupils (case studies, webinars, workshops, scientific events, educational festivals "Moscow Mind Games", tutorial "Mind sports" etc.). The studies are supported by the Moscow Department of Education.

Results and discussion. The theoretical grounds for allocation of the conceptual unit "mind sports" in sports pedagogics were put by L.P. Matveev in the classification of sports by the specifics of subject of competitions and nature of motor activity (1977). In his classification the fifth group contains sports, the main content of which is determined by the nature of abstract-logical beating of the opponent.

We call mind sports those kinds where the result of sports activity is stipulated to the decision of the given problem (the rules of this sport), using mainly intelligence, provided by "mental action" (or in the "internal action plan") with the dominant role of conscious over unconscious. Special attention is to be paid to the fact that in this case we consider "mind sports" as a part of "sport" in general, thereby recognize that the display of intelligence as the personality structure is inherent to different sport activities, but it is not always crucial for achievement of planned sports result. The main criterion for selection of these sports is the possibility of holding competitions distantly [7]. Therefore, some disciplines of eSport are within the object field [1].

The Russian register of sports contains the following mind sports: go, sports bridge, chess, draughts (one is to note the introduction of Renju to the disciplines of draughts in 2012). Some mind games are also sports disciplines: sports for the deaf (chess, Russian draughts, hundred-square draughts); sports for persons with spinal cord injuries (chess, draughts); sports for the blind (chess, chess - a fast game, chess - a lightning game, Russian draughts, Russian draughts - a quick game, Russian draughts – a lightning game, draughts - hundred-square). In addition to state accepted sports within the activity of numerous public organizations other types of mind contests are being actively developed: Russian chess (tavreli), backgammon, shogi, sentsi, sports version of "What? Where? When", etc.

In 2007 the "Mind sports forum" was held in Russia, organized by the Multisport Association of Russia, uniting chess, draughts, go and sport bridge national federations. The Forum is held under the auspices of International Mind Sports Association (IMSA) [13]. The first World Mind Sports Games (WMSG) 2008 in Beijing were the final part of this event [5]. It should be noted that Russia is hosting World Mind Sports Games 2014 in Ufa [14].

The methodological developments on the introduction of mind sports in the Russian educational space are available only for chess out of the sports presented in the program. The theses on go and sport bridge are lacking. The insufficient scientific and methodological development impedes training coaches and teachers in these sports. Today, virtually the entire training process in go and sports bridge is conducted by the efforts of public organizations. The same situation is in the computer Sport [6].

The support of the Department of Education of Moscow is the resulting aspect of scientific discussion of introduction of mind sports into the educational environment. With the direct participation of the deputy head of the Department of Education of Moscow Rusetskaya Margarita Nikolaevna and staff of several universities (RSUPhCSYT, MSAPhC, Stankin MSTU), together with the heads of federations of mind sports the plan for integrated activities of "Moscow Mind Sports Games” for Moscow pupils and students has been developed and implemented. In total 2854 residents were involved in the activities. Mass media sufficiently covered this project.

Elite athletes (Honored Master of Sports of Russia, 12th world chess champion Alexandra Kosteniuk, Honored Master of Sports of Russia, multiple world champion in three types of draughts Alexander Shvartsman, Honored Master of Sports of Russia, two-fold world bridge champion Tatiana Ponomareva, Honored Master of Sports of Russia, bronze European champion Natalia Kovaleva), as well as representatives of mind sports federations held 64 master classes in Moscow educational institutions. In addition, educational festivals "Moscow Intelliada" were organized. As a part of these activities the innovative educational technology was implemented: the emphasis was shifted from the competitive form to the educational one. Each of the participants of the “Intelliada" was given a "Competitor’s Passport" when registering. Master classes, games of multiboard chess were held in designated areas/sites (depending on the type of facility), and participants could perform test tasks in distributing forms (according to age group). Successful participation in any format had the stamp in the "Competitor’s Passport" (each print - specific mind sport). At the completion of the festival "Competitor’s Passport" was exchanged for a certificate (up to 6 stamps - bronze, from 7 to 11 - silver, 11 - gold). Representatives of each mind sports federation also had an opportunity to award with special diplomas the most distinguished members of the Intelliada.

The analysis of "Competitors’ Passports" indicates to the fact that students have shown interest in all the presented mind games, in spite of the fact that technologically equipped playgrounds of the Federation of eSports of the Russian Federation of Computer Sport were presented at educational festivals. The analysis of the filled handout showed that pupils and students are actively playing computer games, know story lines, are familiar with specialized network resources (leader, know sports idols’ "nicknames" and their biographies. As for mind sports, the overwhelming majority (91%), knowing the rules of the game of draughts (64-square, or Russian, draughts), could not name athletes (except for Petrova - 16 mentions), types of checkers, the place of Russian draughts in the international sports movement. Chess have been mastered by 38% of participants of the festivals. Child and youth audiences know the names of the following players:

1. A. Karpov – 287 answers;

2. G. Kasparov – 231 variant;

3. V. Kramnik – 163 mentions;

4. K. Ilyumzhinov (FIDE president) – 85 times.

However, modern chess competitions fall out of the interest of the audience. Go, as a sport, is growing rapidly. The analysis of the forms has shown that Moscow residents partially know about this sport, but could not call outstanding athletes, highlight the history of the sport. Festival participants (and representatives of some educational institutions) regarding sports bridge showed a mixed reaction. The fact that card game is an official sport was surprising. General public has hardly heard about this sport, so festival participants could not mention neither competition rules, nor the status of sport, nor athletes.

The findings above are confirmed by the results of the survey (with elements of formal interview), held on December 1 at the All-Russia Exhibition Center at the Youth Forum of the North-East Administrative District of Moscow. In total, 418 students from 43 Moscow universities aged 17 to 32 years took part in the survey. Young residents of the capital estimate mind sports as an interesting and useful pastime, prefer to play with the help of information and communication technologies in the distant mode during free (from studies and work) time. Chess and draughts are considered traditional sports. Go is associated with the component of the Eastern (Asian) culture and arouses interest. Sports bridge is identified with poker and the randomness is assumed to be against the background of increased monetization (which is untrue). Computer games cause increased interest among young people and to the question: "List mind games you play?" most of respondents mentioned variants of computer games ("Starcraft" - 251 "Quake" - 218 "Warcraft" - 193 "Heroes of Might and Magic"- 117 "Tetris" - 81 and others; for comparison: chess - 73, checkers - 41, backgammon - 36).

The conducted teleconference with international participation "Educational, psychological and social aspects of digitalization of mind sports games" (November, 23 2012 RSUPCSYT (SCOLIPC) has provoked heated debate and enabled to reveal different aspects of educational, training and competitive activities in the information society. The conference was attended by representatives of city universities: MSU, MSIIR, MTTSU, MHA, Stankin MSTU, MEPI, MSAPC etc. Representatives of the regions of Russia (Togliatti, Kursk, Izhevsk, Yaroslavl) and foreign participants (Latvia, Ukraine, Denmark, Brazil, Israel, Bulgaria, Germany) took part distantly. It was noted that intellectual culture is an integral part of sports culture. Most promising were called the researches that enable designing diagnostic evaluation systems of the dynamics in cognitive abilities in the mind sports environment. Design of such a software will enable to fix personality’s metasubject manifestations and can be a method of evaluation of activity of educational institutions. The need to build-up of research projects on design of such software not only for intellectual, but also for corporal activity was marked, for example, based on contactless sensor game controllers Kinect. The scientists consider relevant development of the sports in which the results of athlete’s model-design activity are compared. Nowadays aeromodelling, automodelling and radio sport are legitimate. However, the established Centers of technological support of education (CTSE) and innovation and technology centers have a typical social order for sportization of robotics and ready to employ specialists in "engineering" or "modelling" sports. These definitions require independent scientific debate. These discussions would probably not only expand the object field of sports pedagogics, but also create innovation educational programs, conforming to social needs, including reforms in the defense system [16].

The problem of identity preservation is urgent in the context of globalization, as mind games are a universal communicative language and an agent of different cultures, and information and communication technologies remove spatial and temporal boundaries. The European integration process provokes the need to expand knowledge of the Russians about International draughts (including Brazilian and checkers), as well as sports bridge as a basic component of the European intellectual and sports culture (for example, Bill Gates is an active professional bridge player). Due to the increased contacts with the Asian continent we need to understand the fact that electronic (computer) sport along with chess and go (baduk) was introduced to the program of 4 Asian Indoor Games [15]. Thus, representatives of 44 countries (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Bhutan, Vietnam, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Kazakhstan, Cambodia, Qatar, Kyrgyzstan, China, Chinese Taipei, Korea, Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Singapore, Syria, Hong Kong, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Japan) will compete in the following disciplines of computer sport: FIFA, League of Legends, Need for Speed, Special Force, Starcraft, Tekken under the patronage of the Olympic Council of Asia.

Conclusion. Department of development of mind sports was established at the beginning of 2013 in FSEI "Center of organizational and methodological support of physical education" of Department of Education of Moscow. The priority direction of its work is to promote the use of the value potential of mind games in the educational environment of subordinate educational institutions, including via the system of further education. In particular, Mind sports school league is to be created in the academic year 2013/2014, as well as organization of mass educational sports events (including distant ones) and festivals, teachers’ training and retraining, development of modern methodological support and maintenance of experimental sites for development of mind sports. The plan of consolidated actions was approved in conjunction with the Moscow Paralympic Committee to establish an inclusive interactive mind sports environment


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