Sports sociocultural potential and conditions of its realization within sports education



A.I. Zagrevskaya, associate professor, Ph.D. National research Tomsk state university, Tomsk

Key words: sport, sports values, personal sports culture, physical and sports education, students.

On the modern stage of social development one should be deeply aware of the value of sport as a phenomenon of human culture and its genuine role in people’s life activity. Sport is a specific way of life, a clear image of social and spiritual activities, meaning regularity and keeping to the common human values in everything. Man, his individual and social lives, is and has always been the primary subject of the modern sport [8].

Nowadays sport and physical culture are the common material, intellectual, emotional and psychological and spiritual values of society in general and every man in particular. Sport is one of the most efficient and interesting forms of organization of classes of physical culture at higher school, getting more important in students’ lifestyle and way of life. The emotional aspect of the issue of the physical education and sports activity is a significant factor for students, displayed in the feeling of satisfaction from the felt positive effect from physical education and sports training, whether it is the victory at competitions or even a small victory over self. Proceeding from sociological studies, most of the students would prefer doing a selected sport in view of their interests and abilities. 

Sports classes are known to train children’s and students’ positive qualities (purposefulness, insistence, will power etc.) and negative, contradicting common cultural values (cruelty, aggression). Therefore the purpose of the paper was to define the educational conditions of realization of sports sociocultural potential facilitating formation of personal sports culture.

Nowadays a wider philosophic-сulturological view of sports culture and physical and sports education is being formed, requiring breaking of the limits of methodological constructions associated with inappropriate organization and content of the system of physical education of children and young students, personal and social awareness of all the resources of this social phenomenon, having a big cultural potential [1].

Personal sports culture is formed within personality’s interiorization of sports cultural-educational potential, values, as well as stipulated by the accumulated experience of physical education and sports activity and giving it personal sense.

The social necessity of development of sport among students is determined by social and state needs for the method of training of human psychophysical abilities. Sport is the logical end of the system “physical culture”, since nonspecialized physical education defines only the initial basis of development of motor skills and physical qualities, elaborates only preconditions for its development, while sport reveals these abilities of young people on the ultimate level [7].  

A.G. Egorov and M.A. Zakharov (2006) allocate sociocultural characteristics of sport which are as follows.

  • Sport is a product of culture. Sport is always influenced essentially by the environment where it is being formed and developed. Modern sport is a product of modern culture with dominant technocratic values associated with achievement of the best result. The problems of sport are to be examined in the context of problems of the whole culture of the given society.
  •  Sport is a factor of cultural development. Sport affects essentially other sociocultural phenomena, including economy, politics, art and language. In the middle of XX sport catalyzed formation of the integrated cultural environment and became a factor of globalization. Fitness is in fashion now, it has become the feature of time and most important – a symbol of success. Sport is limited in the body of the modern culture. It, as no other activity, initiates international contacts and renders a significant effect on life and culture of people of the world.
  • Sport is a picture of personification of the value of novation. The value orientation of the post-industrial civilization in sport is focused on the post-industrial civilization on the continuous innovation. Continuous renovation of sports result and sports show is specific for modern sport, like in science it is continuous knowledge update and goods and services production – in economy.
  • Sport is a sphere of realization of aesthetic values. One of the common cultural values of sport is that it contains vast potential of aesthetic effect on a person, of training the ability to perceive, feel and create beauty.
  • Sport is a sphere of personal self-realization. Sport acts as one of important spheres of personal self-realization and self-determination. An athlete represents a pattern of control of his weaknesses, external hindrances and temporal failures.
  • Sport is an ideal of justice. The preconditions for implementation of the humanistic principle of justice and equal chances are set in sport like in a humane game model of real life situations. Sport is a symbol of cooperation and understanding in the world, serving a symbolic link for conflict resolution.
  • Sport and the value of records. Sport – is an area of anthropomaximology. Sports records reveal the limits man is able to achieve by certain means to improve different qualities and abilities.
  • Sport is a system of knowledge. Achievement of high sports results and further effective development of the sports infrastructure are impossible without scientific knowledge and interdisciplinary interaction of sports and other sciences.
  • Sport is a quintessence of civilization, culture and society. Sport is a focus of the modern world, where all key, essential issues, relevant for the modern civilization are concentrated [3].

It is to be marked that the values worked in sport and physical culture can be properly understood by a personality and recognized on a personal conceptual level only if the personality has felt and accepted them emotionally but not just understood and learnt rationally. Differing essentially from knowledge, expressing intersubject relations, the values ​​suggest another way of desobjectivation - the process of spiritual communication, during which a personality becomes familiar with certain values​​, including in the field of sport and physical culture.

The system approach to the study of functioning of sport and physical culture in higher education (goals, objectives, content, organization, technology, etc.) promoted designing the model of physical and sports education for students as an educational system, within which the sociocultural potential of sports and physical culture can be effectively realized. The quoted educational system is meant to form students’ sports culture. Culturological, person-active, synergetic and competency approaches are considered as the theoretical and methodological basis of design of the educational system, which are complementary, on the one hand, and reflect the trends of the modern higher education, on the other.

We assume that the culturological approach to education is a cultural process implemented in the culture conformable environment, with all its components having their human senses and serving man, displaying freely his individuality, capable of cultural self-development and self-determination in the world of cultural values [2]. The goal of such an educational approach is formation of a “man of culture”, in whose image much attention is paid to his integrity – the reflection of natural and social characteristics as well as the ones as a subject of culture, where development of social and natural bases is presented in the context of cultural features of the common human value [9].

Formation of a “man of culture” means development of his cultural abilities, their actual use, promoting student’s self-development as a personality. When defining the goals of education, its culture creative aspect becomes a priority.

The culturological approach enables considering sports culture as a human value, which is the conceptual basis of personal and social development, and formation of sports culture as a culturological process, unfolding in the close relationship with sociocultural university educational environment. When highlighting it as the methodological basis, we proceeded from the fact that man learns about cultural values ​​in the course of studies reflecting the trends of social development. Here man is a subject, creator of culture.

The culturological approach serves an essential method of humanization of sport and physical culture. The problem of humanization of physical and sports education sharply raised the question on the essence of the culturological aspect of knowledge in physical culture and sport, aimed at forming students' personal sports culture. In view of the culturological approach functions of physical and sports education should be redirected from development of only human physical potential to development of personal sports culture (as a goal and result of physical and sports education) - its system of physical education and sports values, self-actualization, self-realization, self-development and experience of creative physical education and sports activity. M.S. Kagan (1996) focuses on the fact that values are always personal, are learnt not only by mind, but using human psyche, that enable man to choose the content of culture in harmony with inner world and become a personality via emotional experience – subject of culture [4].

The realization of the culturological approach within physical and sports education facilitates involvement of students in sport and physical culture as phenomena of general culture: learning on health culture, way of life, motor culture, physical education and sports values and humanistic Olympic ideas, communicative culture in the course of physical education and sports activity. Physical and sports education in the context of culture is a method of formation of students’ physical education and sport competence, a method of realization of their personal physical education and sports needs.

Personality activity approach in its personal component presupposes a student himself in the center of physical and sports education – his motives, needs, goals, individual psychological characteristics, i.e. student as a personality. A teacher puts an educative goal of the class and forms, directs and corrects the whole educational process for student’s personal development based on the student’s interests, level of his physical education and sports knowledge, state of health, physical development and fitness. Thus, the goal of every class in case of the personality activity approach in physical and sports education is set in view of every specific student and a group in general.

“Activity” category is the second component of the personality activity approach to physical and sports education. As to realize the essence of activity, A.N. Leont’ev (1975) distinguishes the concepts “actually felt” and “only arising” in consciousness. In our study the proposition that only the content that is the object of subject’s targeted activity, i.e. that takes a structural place of the direct objective of internal or external action in the system of some activity, is actually realized, is significant when analyzing this feature for any activity, and physical and sports one in particular  [6].

The personality activity approach is supposed to organize physical and sports education based on the subject-subject educational interaction, first of all, presupposing the freedom of choice by student of the type of physical education and sports activity in compliance with their interests, needs and motives and a trainer-teacher in specific sports. Such an approach suggests, firstly, creating conditions for student’s personal self-actualization and personal growth. Secondly, this approach forms student’s activity, his readiness for physical education and sports activity, solution of educational and training issues based on the confidential subject-subject relations with a teaching trainer. Thirdly, the personality activity approach presupposes the unity of external and internal motives: the external is an achievement motive, and the internal – a cognitive motive. Fourthly, the quoted approach within the framework of this study, means acceptance of an educative-training task and satisfaction from its team solution with other students. The personality activity approach to physical and sports education means also the current situation for students to learn new forms, rules, methods and means of physical education and sports activity, i.e. development of not only student’s physical potential, but his personality in general.

As we believe, development of the personal sports culture is controlled by the key concept of synergetics “self-organization” due to the basic synergetic characteristics like transparency, dissipative and nonlinearity taking place in development of student’s personal sports culture.

The modern synergetic approach considers human personality as the one referred, in M.S. Kagan’s judgment (2005), to the fourth class of super-ultra-complex systems by the process of their self-organization [5]. Regarding the process of the university development of students’ sports culture, it is as follows: the introduction of a student’s personality into the sports environment actually means bringing the variety of methods of self-organization of every personality, since every personality as an ultra-complex system is unique in a limitless diversity of specific modifications. Consequently, despite the designed organization of development of personal sports and physical cultures using sports means, self-organization is specific to it, for students as unique personalities-subjects take sport and physical culture, all its spiritual-value, aesthetic, moral and creative grounds individually, regardless the common recognition of their fundamentals.

The synergetic approach to the essence of students’ physical and sports education assumes student’s focus on physical education and sports self-development and self-improvement while mastering the values of sport and physical culture in a university.

The competency approach in our study reflects the requirements of the State educational standard of the third generation of presentation of results of studies, including the physical education and sports one, in competences and competency. Competence is defined as human ability to use knowledge in practice in an atypical situation, focusing on its activity aspect. Competencies are the foundation of competency and are based on single aspects of human personality, worked readiness for specific action, on a formed value orientation. 

We conditionally call competency in the sphere of sport and physical culture “physical education and sports competency”, defined as a combination of value-conceptual orientations, knowledge, abilities and skills in implementation of physical education and sports activity, stipulated by the subject’s personal experience. Physical education and sports competency is an integrative expert’s personal characteristic, made of a set of interrelated and interdependent competences. In our opinion, one can allocate some competences in physical education and sports competency that are as follows: value-conceptual, health-saving, communicative, motor and physical education self-development competences.

Conclusion. Sport as a sociocultural phenomenon in the modern society represents a product and a factor of cultural development. The essence of the sociocultural potential is presented by the values of novations, records and aesthetic values. At the same time sport is a sphere of personal self-realization. The educational conditions of realization of sports sociocultural potential for development of personal sports culture are the use of culturological, personality activity, synergetic and competency approaches when designing the system of physical and sports education at higher school.


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