Formation of motivation for classes of physical culture among students

Formation of motivation for classes of physical culture among students


A.A. Il’in, Ph.D.
K.A. Marchenko
L.V. Kapilevich, professor, MD
Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk

Key words: physical culture, students, motivation.

Introduction. Classes of physical culture should be integrated into the set of humanitarian disciplines of higher vocational training: in view of new requirements a future specialist is to do sports to facilitate development of his intellectual abilities, creativity and spiritual and moral forces [1]. So the main purpose of the educational process is to be not only mastering of a set of general knowledge, skills and abilities, but first of all creation of conditions for self-realization, student’s self-development and creativity. However, currently the focus in teaching of physical culture is shifted to the motor activity component and the algorithm of teacher’s and student’s actions: teacher tells and shows - student repeats [2].

 Motivational component is the core of the structure of student’s physical culture. The motives arising based on the needs define the orientation of the personality, encourage and mobilize him to actions. The need for physical culture is a key motive, a guiding and regulating force of the individual's behavior with a wide range: the need for movement and physical activity, communication, emotional discharge, self-assertion, strengthening of the personal self, learning, improvement of the quality of physical culture and sports classes, comfort, etc. [4,5].

The stipulated by requirements system of motives directs personality in the field of physical education, stimulates and mobilizes him to physical activity. The motives identified by V.I. Il’inich [3] are as follows: physical perfection, friendly solidarity, necessity (attendance of classes), competition, imitation, sports and procedural and play motives.

The purpose of the study was to analyze the specifics of formation of the motivation for classes of physical culture in case of different forms of organization of the educational process.

Materials and methods. The study involved 120 1-3-year technical university students from the department of physical education. 50 students trained by the program of conditioning training (CT) and 70 students studied in accordance with their sports specializations.

Questionnaires were conducted at the beginning of the first academic year and at the end of each year to allocate changes in the students’ motivational sphere. The dominant motives in physical activity were determined by the questionnaire designed based on the set of questions in accordance with the classification suggested by S.I. Filimonova [6]. Each of the four groups was made of eight statements, factors to rank by individual significance within each group with the statement on hitting qualification standards included in two groups to reveal the real role of this factor for students. The last place belonged to the total of ranks. The preprocessing of the materials revealed two key factors (average for the group) in each group, and students were to rank again the obtained eight factors.

Results and discussion. Proceeding from the estimation of the popular sports activities among students at the beginning of the year (the start of the experiment), most of the students in both groups (78% in the CT, and 94% in the specialization group) prefer team sports and the competitive method (41% for CT and 99% for the specialization group). According to the results, the specialization group had a greater reduction of students training on their own, by impulse or not training at all and a more notable increase in the ones exercising once a week or a month. Most of the students not involved in the individual work explained it by the lack of time and busyness.

The analysis of the data shows the significant reduction of the exercises without any orientation, indicating to the gradual awareness of such activities by students. Moreover, the difference between the groups is in the enormous lead of the exercises aimed at development of specific physical qualities in the specialization group that confirms the previous conclusion. The preferences regarding the number of classes of physical culture a week have changed. If at the beginning of the first academic year the students of the CT and specialization groups had agreed to train generally twice a week (84% and 85%, respectively), then they changed their mind. It testifies to the slight increase of the interest in physical training in the CT group and a sharp rise in the specialization group, mainly due to participation in competitions.

The motives associated with the trappings of sports activity were the most significant in the specialization group at the beginning of the year among the internal motives based on satisfaction of the process of activity. The learning motives: strive for new forms of motor actions and the use of favorite exercises at classes, were also popular.

Students’ preferences of students on the number of classes of physical culture

Answer options

CT group

Specialization group

1st year

2nd year

3rd year

1st year

2nd year

3rd year

Once a week







Twice a week







3 lessons a week (including participation in competitions)







4 lessons a week (including participation in competitions)







As for the external positive motives based on performance the dominating ones were personal reasons, such as the wish for getting ready for qualification standards. The natural need for movement and cognitive motives were estimated low. Students did not associate their improved performance with the effect of physical culture which proves their valeological incompetence.

Health strengthening and the will to develop physical qualities were the leading motives in the third group related to perspective. Such motives as achievement of a certain level of knowledge for future professional and social activities were much less important for the students. Thus, students do not put together physical education and moral and psychological education etc. Meanwhile, winter football classes have a great potential in formation of students’ moral and psychological characteristics.

Good marks in exams, fear of not hitting or the fear of doing poorly at qualification standards were priority in the group of students’ external negative motives. It is good that the motive of the fear of being mocked by fellow-students for poorly performed actions was the least important, indicating to the favorable psychological climate in the group.

Among the leading motives of physical activity at the beginning of the academic year the students of the specialization group marked as important the motive associated with health strengthening, yet not substantiated by any other motives. The rest of the allocated key motives were unstable and could be effective for a short period of time, did not stipulate for the core one, so we can only speak on the declarative nature of the defined leading value of the health strengthening factor. Therefore, this motive has been substantiated by the necessary directions, explanations and test results within the experiment that ultimately promoted getting down to the motive for mastering of some motor actions and the motive for extra studies in this area. The motive associated with getting a good mark in an exam and training to hit qualification standards when justifying the cause-and-effect relationships, along with development of physical qualities and health strengthening gave up the lead by the end of the year.

As for the internal motives, a similar trend as in the specialization group of the inclination to external entertaining factors of exercising was observed among the students in the CT group in the beginning of the year. In the second group of motives the one for training for qualification standards was especially notable in the CT group. Like in the specialization group, cognitive motives, need for movement and improvement of exercise performance were not principal in the CT group. Regarding the motives associated with perspective, the will to develop physical qualities was a priority, whereas good health was only on the second place. Meanwhile, CT students underrated physical fitness and knowledge in the field of physical culture they need in the future social and professional life, and did not see the connection of physical education with other forms of education. External negative motives were ranked by CT students generally the same as by students of the specialization group.

The results of the questionnaire of students from the specialization group at the end of the academic year principally differed from the original ones. The students, who trained by the experimental technology, got interested in learning new forms of moves and now have their favorite exercises. Cognitive motives were leading in the group. The students of the specialization group became aware of the potential of improvement of their performance via exercising and marked as the most valuable the motives related to perspective, health strengthening, development of physical qualities, will for physical training and acquiring of the knowledge necessary for their future social and professional activities.

In the fourth group of motives the situation has changed but not significantly, the leaders remained the same: the wish to get a good mark on exam and the fear of doing poorly at qualification standard.

Proceeding from the analysis of the value of the leading motives for physical activity in the students of the specialization group at the end of the year, the results received now generally fit the formula of the optimal motivational complex.

The motive associated with the use of favorite exercises moved from the second to the fourth place in the CT group by the end of the academic year. Along with the motive related to the use of interesting equipment and training simulators remaining on the first place, the motive associated with communication with classmates, which was temporary too, has become of great importance.

  The situation with motives in the second group has not changed except for the motive associated with the wish to master some motions that moved from the third to the fourth place. Little has changed in the groups of motives associated with perspective and external negative motives. The wish for a good mark on exam was still priority. The places of the leading motives for sports activity from the first up to the fourth places remained the same among the students of the CT group at the end of the year compared to the original results, but still the difference between the first two leading motives reduced to three points. However, the external negative motives were of great value for the students of the CT group.

Conclusion. The obtained results stipulate for the conclusion that organization of the educational process in the form of specializations facilitates optimization of the structure of students’ motivational preferences: intensification of internal motives for exercising and formation of cognitive motives. The role of the motives associated with perspective of health strengthening, the wish for physical training and acquiring of the knowledge needed in the future social and professional activities has increased. Meanwhile, external negative motives still prevail in the group training by the conditioning program.


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