A.V. Panikhina, Ph.D.
O.P. Bortsova, Ph.D.
A. A. Shukanov, professor, Dr.med.vet. Chuvash state pedagogical university named after I.Ya. Yakovlev, Cheboksary
Key words: junior female students, physiological status, adaptation, fitness aerobics, biogenic compound "Selenes+".
Introduction. The problems of students' health deterioration and progressing negative trends in their way of life are the focus of much attention of many modern researchers. Tension of the junior students’ functional status is marked while adapting to classes due to numerous newly arising socioeconomic and ecological variables, such as decreased physical activity and the lack of essential nutrients and bioactive agents accompanied by compromised immunity and arising diseases [1,2,3,4]. Thus, introduction of innovative techniques and methods of recreation for students is a relevant issue of modern physiology. Hence, the purpose of our study was to consider the specifics of improvement of the female students’ physiological status in the context of using fitness aerobics and the biogenic compound "Selenes+".
Materials and methods. The experiments and laboratory studies were made in two series during the I, II, III, IV semesters (1-2 courses) with 45 female students aged 17–20 of the department of natural resources and environmental design of Chuvash state pedagogical university named after I.Ya. Yakovlev. They were distributed between three groups 15 persons each. According to the medical examination in the city hospital № 2 in Cheboksary and individual questioning, the female students under study entered the basic medical group. Physical fitness level (health status) of female students of the comparison groups was estimated in both of the series of the experiments. Therefore, anthropometric status, hematological and biochemical patterns and state of cardiovascular system were estimated at the beginning (September, February) and at the end (December, May) of the theoretical studies, in winter (January) and summer (June) examination periods of I-IV semesters. 1 month before the examination periods (December, May) 1 and 2‑year female students were prescribed placebo orally (group II) and the biogenic compound "Selenes+" (group III) 1 pill a day upon the recommendations of Ministry of Health and Social Development of the RF. The girls of the experimental groups had additional aerobics sessions twice a week 90 min each. The research methods applied were as follows: clinical-physiological - height, body mass, Ketle index (KI) measurements; examination of cardiovascular system (CVS); division of heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic pressure (APs and APd), systolic (SBV) and minute (MBV) blood volume, pulse pressure (PP), mean dynamic pressure (MDP), Kerdo’s vegetative index (KVI), rate pressure product (RPP), index of functional changes (IFC); biochemical - allocation of the serum selenium concentration, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant system (АОS) activity; hematological - allocation of red blood count, hemoglobin level, number of white blood cells and blood quotient (BQ).
The digital data processing was made using the method of variation statistics comparing the significance of differences in the indices using the software Microsoft Excel-2007 for statistical analysis.
Results and discussion. In the series I of the experiments height of the examined female first-year students was proved to increase with their age from 161,45±3,05–162,40±2,07 up to 162,57±2,49–163,26±1,10 cm not varying significantly in the inter-group comparison. The undulating changes in the body mass of female first-year students varied from the experimental groups from 50,88±1,82 to 55,49±2,78 kg (Р>0,05). Ketle index varied within the physiological range (19,98±0,67–21,13±0,82 versus 19,10±0,52–20,35±0,42 c.u.) for 17-20-year-old girls (Р>0,05).
The analysis of the received hematological data revealed the tendency to decrease of the number of red blood cells since the beginning of theoretical classes to examination periods from 4,32±0,13–4,36±0,11 and 4,54±0,09–4,41±0,09 to 4,26±0,15–4,33±0,06 and 4,40±0,14–4,35±0,03 million cells/mcL respectively. The increase of this hematological parameter from 4,40±0,08–4,64±0,08 up to 4,64±0,09–4,71±0,08 million cells/mcL, observed in female students from the group III in the time fixed, was significantly higher than the test scores in May and June (Р<0,01-0,001). The hemoglobin level fluctuation of young students from the experimental groups was similar to the changes of the number of white blood cells. The dynamic changes of the blood quotient values matched completely the fluctuations of the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration. So, BQ changed over the range 0,81±0,02 to 0,85±0,02 c.u. within the Ist series of observations, being in line with the physiological standard for the given age category of the girls (Р>0,05). The number of white blood cells in female students under study was marked to decrease wavelike during the 1st academic year, where the inter-group difference was unreliable.
According to the study of the biochemical profile, the serum selenium level of female first-year students from the groups I, II and III at the beginning of the first semester was 60,70±3,83, 62,60±3,43 and 64,70±2,81 million cells/mcL respectively. In the winter and summer examination periods it was significantly higher among female students of the group III compared to that of their coevals from the groups I and II due to using the biogenic compound "Selenes+". The lipid peroxidation activity was proved to have an undulating increase in young students from the experimental groups from 3,49±0,36–3,88±0,23 to 4,09±0,04–4,45±0,14 mV). In June female first-year students from the group III were inferior to their coevals from the control group in the examined biochemical parameter by 8,1% (Р<0,05). The antioxidant activity of the girls from the groups I and II decreased wavelike within the 1st course (1,28±0,08–1,42±0,09 versus 1,18±0,05–1,30±0,04 mV/c), when those of their coevals from the group III, on the contrary, went (1,33±0,08 versus 1,47±0,03 mV/c). It is to be marked that the AOS activity of young students from the group III was remarkably higher of that of female first-year students from the groups I and II all the time within the experiments, especially in winter and summer examination periods. Thus, its increase in January and June amounted to 9,0–18,9% and 13,1–24,6 % (Р<0,001) respectively.
Proceeding from the analysis of functioning the CVS, the HR values of the examined female first-year students fluctuated from 72,50±4,48–73,60±3,22 to 76,70±1,92–80,50±1,15 bpm (Р>0,05) during the Ist series of examinations. The assessment of the dynamics of pulse pressure values, showing the myocardial functional status of the girls from all groups, revealed the trend of their undulate decrease with age (42,10±3,26–44,70±2,07 versus 37,70±1,76–41,40±2,62 mmHg). Maximum values for PP were marked in pre-examination periods in both of the semesters (Р>0,05). The APs indices of the examined female students were proved to rise gradually during the semester (110,20±2,28–112,80±1,87 versus 118,30±0,98–119,50±0,64 mmHg; Р>0,05). The dynamics of APd indices fully corresponded to the manner of changes for APs. The examined girls were relatively tall when started theoretical classes in the Ist semester and during both of the examination periods. The monitoring of the dynamic changes of APs, defining the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle in a systolic period, revealed an undulating decrease in respect to age among female students from the experimental groups (23,03±3,26–27,91±2,02 versus 13,97±1,76–18,96±2,89 ml), with the peak marked during examination periods in both of the semesters (Р>0,05). Proceeding from the MBV measurements, characterizing the total amount of blood ejected from the heart into the aorta or pulmonary artery per minute, the examined young students had their indices gradually decreasing with age from 1682,71±283,17–2054,75±176,63 to 1084,88±140,76–1450,85±215,93 ml (Р>0,05). The analysis of the dynamics of the RPP indices showing the level of myocardial oxygen consumption, testified to their zigzag increase among the examined girls during the year (80,33±4,78–82,32±3,39 versus 90,74±2,46–95,32±1,90 c.u.) and without significant difference in the inter-group aspect. The manner of MDP fluctuations, indirectly defining the motive power of the blood, had a similar mechanism (Р>0,05). According to the KVI calculations, the number of eutonics, sympathicotonics and vagotonics among the examined first-year students totaled to 30-50, 30-60, 10-40%, and 20-60, 40-80, 0 % at the beginning and at the end of the academic year respectively. It should be noted that the number of sympathicotonics increased during the examination periods, indicating to the dominant influence of the sympathetic nervous system due to psychoemotional tension of the body.
The IFC values of young students from all groups were shown to rise gradually in respect to age from 1,87±0,07–1,96±0,07 to 2,08±0,04–2,17±0,04 c.u., indicating to the satisfactory adaptation of the body to higher school learning conditions.
In the IInd series of the examinations the height of female second-year students from the comparison groups increased gradually from 163,29±2,66–163,86±2,13 to 164,12±1,94–164,63±2,70 cm. The body mass values of the experimental female students ranged from 50,20±1,61 to 53,75±1,02 kg (Р>0,05). The KI values during the 2nd course were subject to undulating fluctuations within the physiological range for 17-20-year-old girls between 18,69±0,39–19,79±0,53 and 18,82±0,29–19,45±0,48 c.u. (Р>0,05).
When the number of red blood cells in female second-year students from the groups I and II decreased with the semesters (4,55±0,14–4,37±0,13 versus 4,23±0,08–4,23±0,09 million cells/mcL), the one in their coevals from the group III gradually increased with age from 4,45±0,09 to 4,67±0,09 million cells/mcL. The number of red blood cells in the girls from this group exceeded that of their coevals from the groups I and II by the end of the 2nd academic year by 9,2% (Р<0,05). The changes of hemoglobin concentration corresponded to the dynamics of the number of red blood cells, the hemoglobin level of female students from the group III exceeded the one of their coevals from the groups I and II by 7,4–12,4% (Р<0,01-0,005) at the end of the IV semester. BQ within the observation period was within the narrow fluctuations range between 0,81±0,02–0,85±0,02 and 0,82±0,02–0,84±0,03 c.u., lacking significant difference in the inter-group perspective. The number of white blood cells of female second-year students from the experimental groups decreased in respect to age (7,23±0,15–7,75±0,25 versus 7,01±0,23–7,75±0,25 thousand cells/mcL; P>0,05).
The fluctuations of serum selenium concentration of the examined female students ranged from 62,50±3,22–72,40±3,14 to 61,60±5,05–108,90±6,29 mcg/l during the 2nd course. Female students of the group III had a significant advantage related to control indices at all phases of the research. The LPO activity of female second-year students from the groups I and II was intensified gradually in the age aspect from 4,18±0,09–4,28±0,14 up to 4,29±0,07–4,50±0,07 mV, while the one of the girls from the group III, on the contrary, decreased wavelike (4,08±0,19 versus 3,82±0,13 mV). By the end of the IV semester female students from the group III were inferior to their coevals from the groups I and II in this biochemical parameter by 11,0–15,1% (Р<0,05–0,005). AOS activity of the girls from all groups intensified in the zigzag manner with their age from 1,26±0,06–1,38±0,02 to 1,30±0,05–1,47±0,03 mV/c. Female students from the group III surpassed their coevals from the control and the IInd groups in winter and summer examination periods by 12,4–13,1% (Р<0,05), showing higher hydroperoxy stress resistance of the body.
The HR indices of the examined female second-year students during the IInd series of the examination fluctuated between 73,80±1,46–75,90±1,49 and 78,10±3,32–86,60±3,34 bpm. The ones of the girls from the experimental groups were maximal in January and June, and in the group III these values dropped by 1,9–7,8% (P>0,05) compared to their coevals from the groups I and II. PP of the examined female students decreased wavelike in the age aspect (42,10±2,18–44,20±3,10 versus 40,80±2,69–42,80±1,51 mmHg; Р>0,05). The APs indices of female second-year students from all groups increased in a zigzag manner within the year without significant difference in the inter-group comparison (114,40±1,452–117,80±1,77 versus 117,80±0,66–120,30±1,18 mmHg). The fluctuations of APd generally conformed to the dynamics of the APs values. The undulating decrease of the APs values of young students from the experimental groups took place in the age aspect from 19,23±1,93–23,80±3,17 to 14,48±2,14–18,80±1,74 ml (Р>0,05). All in all, the dynamics of the MBV values was in line with the changes of APs (P>0,05). The RPP values of the girls rose wavelike with age from 84,66±2,15–89,39±2,01 to 91,99±3,89–104,23±4,48 c.u. (P>0,05). The manner of the MDP fluctuations mainly corresponded to the dynamics of RPP values without reliable difference in the inter-group comparison. The number of eutonics, sympathicotonics and vagotonics among the girls from the experimental groups was equal to 20-70, 20-50, 10-30% and 0-30, 60-70, 0-10% at the beginning and at the end of the 2nd course respectively. Among them the maximum number of sympathicotonics was detected during winter (60-80%) and summer (60-70%) examination periods, indicating to psychoemotional tension of the body.
The monitoring of the IFC fluctuations revealed an undulating increase of its values for the examined girls in the age aspect (1,94±0,04–2,08±0,03 versus 2,08±0,03–2,26±0,05 c.u.; Р>0,05), indicating to the satisfactory adaptation of the body to the higher school learn mode.
Conclusion. Thus, female students of the group III involved in fitness aerobics combined with the use of the biogenic compound "Selenes+" were proved to dominate over their coevals from the control group by the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin blood concentration, serum selenium level and antioxidant activity by the end of the second year. However, they were inferior to the control group in the lipid peroxidation activity by 15,5% (р<0,05–0,01).
The coevals from the group II involved in fitness aerobics along with taking placebo mediated between the students of the groups I and III by the parameters under study.
- Agadzhanyan, N.A. Students' health: stress, adaptation, sport: study guide / N.A. Agadzhanyan, T.E. Batotsyrenova, L.T. Sushkova. – Vladimir: Vladimir state university, 2004. – 136 P. (In Russian)
- Bondarenko, E.V. The problem of optimization of motor activity as a component of healthy life of secondary pupils and higher school students / E.V. Bondarenko // Problems of health saving of young generation. – Moscow, 2008. – P. 25–27. (In Russian)
- Golubkina, N.A. The characteristics of the food chain of selenium tolerance in the Chuvash conditions / N.A. Golubkina, D.V. Shirokov // Mikroelementy v meditsine, 2003. – V. 4. – P. 11–15. (In Russian)
- Correction of the junior students’ morphophysiological status via integrated use of the biogenic compound "Selens+" and extra physical exercises / A.V. Panikhina [et al.] // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2012. – № 12. – P. 52–55. (In Russian)
- Conor Reilly Selenium in food and health. 2006. pp.20–36.
Panikhina Anna Vital’evna – firstname.lastname@example.org