BIORHYTHMOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL CULTURE IN ORGANIZATION OF UNIVERSITY RECREATIONAL ACTIVITY

Фотографии: 

A.A. Povzun, associate professor, Ph.D.
V.D. Povzun, professor, Dr.Hab.
V.V. Apokin, associate professor, Ph.D. Surgut state university, Surgut

Nowadays understanding of the role of adaptation and, consequently, the required improvement of body adaptabilities in ensuring of human health is so important that it resulted in the rise and active development of an innovative research direction of adaptive medicine. This problem is also getting more popular for universities. Control of students’ adaptation in the system of recreation is mainly facilitating of the increase of body resistance and its spare capacities. As for daily life, here physical culture usually takes the main place in improvement of adaptabilities [1]. The study on human adaptation to physical loads is actually one of the most essential methodological basics of the theory and practice of sport, and concerning physiology adaptation of muscular work is a system body response focused on achievement of the high fitness level and minimization of its physiological value, so success in adaptation is undoubtedly a token of sportsmanship. Nevertheless, such a success is absolutely not the main purpose in sports practice, but, first of all, an instrument to achieve a result in sport. So, the answer to the question on the positive effect of higher level of sportsmanship and of increased adaptation to physical loads on health saving and maintenance of high exercise performance in various daily life conditions is not that unique as it seems.

Without any doubt, it concerns not harm from sport or physical loads, but the necessity of understanding the role and mechanisms of effect of these loads, mainly, on the body’s nonspecific ability, not correlated with sports activity, and on estimation of the ways of increase of its spare capacities by this way. Realization of it promotes creation of required conditions and organization of purposeful recreational activities within both students’ academic and extra-curricular activities and allocation of types and limits of loads, including physical ones, required and enough to achieve the optimum result.

Surely, the search for such an objective evaluation criterion is quite hard, but is assumed resolvable. Homeostasis is a fundamental index equal by its level to the concept of adaptation, whereas biorhythm is the most accessible measuring criterion of homeostasis, that, on the one hand, is one of acute mechanisms of adaptation to environment and, on the other hand, a universal criterion of body functional status as one of the most essential criteria of human physiological adaptation. Moreover, it is biorhythmological analysis that can not only give an idea of the current state of body adaptabilities, but serve the basis for a long-term forecast [2].

Daylight saving and reverting to standard time can be an indirect, nonspecific factor, irrelative to physical fitness and sportsmanship, but at the same time fundamental and rendering simultaneous effect of the same intensity on the state of any organism. Moreover, the influence of the quoted factor can be estimated most adequately by changes in biorhythm indices. Therefore, in the present paper we tried to study changes of biorhythms of key physiological indices of blood circulation system in sports faculty students when reverting to standard time and tried to estimate their level of nonspecific adaptability for the reasons given.

Circadian organization of the key physiological indices was subjected to changes in Surgut students of the faculty of physical culture of SurSU of the same sex and age group. 46 persons took part in the experiment. The studies were carried out 4 times a day in view of chronobiology: 8, 12, 16, 20 hours. Changes were made for 3 days before the date of reverting to standard time, in the day of reverting to standard time and 3 days after. The indices measured included: t – body temperature (С0), HR – heart rate (str/min), SAP – systolic arterial pressure (mm Hg), DAP – diastolic arterial pressure (mm Hg). The obtained data laid the basis for the calculations of: PP – pulse pressure (PP = SAP-DAP mm Hg), Pdyn – average dynamic pressure (Pdyn = 0,42 (SAP - DAP) + DAP mm Hg), SO – systolic output (SO = 100+0,5 (SAP-DAP) - 0,6 DAP -0,6В (ml). where A - age), CO – cardiac output (CO = SO х HR l/min). The obtained data were subject to standard processing. The parameters estimated included the daily average (mesor), rhythm amplitude, function peak time (acrophase) and peak-to-peak value (chronodesm).

The obtained results are adduced in Table. And the first thing you see while analyzing is a very weak rhythm synchronization, i.e. divergence of the frequency of oscillation periods or acrophases before and after reverting to standard time, that is of great importance in our case. It testifies to uneven load on cardiovascular system in different time of the day, but does not give serious grounds to speak on the progress of desynchronosis due to reverting to standard time. Nevertheless, low-grade rhythm is a bad indicator and testifies to athletes’ insufficient initial body adaptability. According to Iordanskaya, strenuous physical loads themselves can be the reason of such a rhythm desynchronization [3], which is proved by the results of our studies of rhythm changes in students of sports and other faculties of SurSU [4,5]. In this case the allocated rhythm diversity can easily result from the disorder of long-term adaptation mechanisms and should be the subject of independent research to reveal and eliminate the reasons of such a disorder, since this situation must be chronic and reflects the state of stable internal desynchronosis. And only by this reason the state of this index is to be noted, since response to any external load can be poor in case of low body adaptabilities.

Table. Changes of biorhythm indicators of key indices of cardiovascular system of sports faculty students when reverting to standard time                                                                                 

 

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Changes of daily averages of key indices of cardiovascular system

body t

36,6±0,04

36,5±0,04

36,5±0,07

36,5±0,05

36,5±0,06

36,5±0,08

36,5±0,04

HR

71,6±1,81

68,6±2,7

71,2±2,37

70,5±3,07

72,3±1,97

73,6±1,77

69,7±1,91

SO

59,4±1,44

56,08±1,57

59,4±1,44

58,8±1,34

58,2±1,51

61,7±1,34

58,9±1,33

CO

4,22±0,81

3,84±0,97

4,20±0,93

4,12±0,8

4,17±0,82

4,52±0,98

4,12±0,8

SAP

113,94±1,80

111,91±2,17

113,28±2,24

113,69±2,84

116,09±1,71

116,25±1,88

114,91±1,98

DAP

69±1,87

72±2,7

69±2,37

70±2,35

72,06±1,97

68,97±2,1

70±1,81

PP

44±2,27

39±2,31

43±2,72

43±2,71

44±2,17

47±2,42

44,06±2,07

Pdyn

88,4±2,07

88,8±2,11

88±2,44

88,6±2,13

90,6±2,04

88,8±2,21

89,4±2,17

Change of amplitudes of the values of key indices of cardiovascular system

body t

0,2±0,02

0,3±0,027

0,3±0,021

0,3±0,033

0,2±0,022

0,2±0,034

0,2±0,02

HR

8,5±1,31

6,9±1,33

12,7±1,51

9,6±1,8

8,2±1,17

7,7±1,77

6,09±1,34

SO

7,98±1,2

6,5±1,13

7,9±1,34

6,02±1,53

6,4±1,33

5,4±1,43

6,6±1,52

CO

0,67±0,14

0,57±0,17

0,87±0,15

0,52±0,16

0,59±0,14

0,59±0,15

0,64±0,15

SAP

10,8±2,2

10,3±2,51

10,5±2,33

10,6±2,01

11,3±1,72

10,4±2,21

9,3±2,44

DAP

6,05±1,90

7,5±2,32

7,14±2,23

7,1±2,3

7,7±2,48

5,53±2,02

9,08±2,24

PP

8,25±2,08

7,2±2,71

8,97±2,3

6,19±1,92

9,7±1,98

9,05±2,02

7,8±2,1

Pdyn

7,19±1,81

6,43±1,97

7,8±1,98

8,12±2,03

8,14±1,89

6,81±1,90

8,02±1,76

Change of acrophases of key indices of cardiovascular system

body t

20.00

16.00

20.00

16.00

20.00

16.00

20.00

HR

12.00

12.00

12.00

12.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

SO

16.00

8.00

12.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

16.00

CO

12.00

16.00

12.00

12.00

20.00

12.00

20.00

SAP

16.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

16.00

8.00

12.00

DAP

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

12.00

20.00

20.00

PP

16.00

16.00

20.00

16.00

16.00

8.00

12.00

Pdyn

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

12.00

8.00

12.00

Change of peak-to-peak values of key indices of cardiovascular system

body t

36,4-36,7

36,3-36,7

36,3-36,7

36,4-36,7

36,3-36,7

36,3-36,6

36,3-36,7

HR

66,9-77,8

63,8-73,5

61-83,4

62,6-76,7

67,9-79,6

67,3-80,7

64,4-75,3

SO

53,4-65,7

49,5-60,8

54,5-64,3

53,9-64,2

51,8-63,9

56,7-66,5

53,5-63,9

CO

3,75-4,77

3,43-4,26

3,55-4,89

3,68-4,54

3,69-4,62

4,10-4,95

3,56-4,72

SAP

106,7-120,8

106,3-118,8

105,1-120,3

107,5-120,7

109,1-124,4

109-124,4

108,3-120,5

DAP

63,9-75,7

66,4-78,5

65,0-73,3

63,6-76,4

65,7-78,5

64,1-74,5

66,7-76,5

PP

37,5-50,0

33,9-45,6

35,4-50,8

38,5-47,8

37,0-50,5

41,0-52,9

38,6-50,4

Pdyn

82,3-93,4

83,2-94,8

83,5-92,4

82,3-94,6

84,9-96,5

84,1-94,3

84,5-94,3

But for desynchronosis, the lack of notable changes and other rhythm parameters could indicate to low intensity of external load to develop a consistent adaptive response. Moreover, the observed changes are not big in its amount and may be not remarkable outwardly. However, the qualitative assessment testifies to purposeful reorganization in the system of hemodynamics with the most significant changes taking place in the first two days after reverting to standard time. Its system character shows change in the value of the Kerdo’s vegetative index (VIK=(1-DAP/HR) 100%), shifting remarkably to sympathicotonia after reverting to standard time.

Rhythm amplitude is of special value in assessment of the state of body adaptabilities. Its decrease for all indices of hemodynamics but pulse and average dynamic pressure may be an indicator of notable tension, if not decrease, of body adaptabilities at the moment. This assumption is also proved by the decrease of the scope of practically all estimated indices. Hence, we can claim that even an hour shift of standard time is undoubtedly notable and is an additional load for the body it is to adapt to. And athletes’ body is not an exception, at least, urgent adaptation is evident enough.

In our case, its success is shown, on the one hand, by the rise of mesors, which value can be an indicator of the state of mainly functional, but not adaptive abilities, along with maintenance of the amplitudes of average dynamic and pulse pressure. Outwardly, such a situation points to attempts of regulatory shift of hemodynamic load to the bloodstream side [6] and heart load reduction, that is especially specific for athletes. But, in our case, daylight saving is accompanied by the rising indices of both pulse and dynamic pressure, that must be facilitating the rise of the former. Such a situation is more specific for an unexercised body, proving itself that external effect is more than substantial or that the body is in the state of fatigue and is activating its abilities by any way available for its state. And in view of the whole material obtained the second conclusion is much more likely, so we cannot be sure speaking on the high level of athletes’ nonspecific adaptability in our case.  Furthermore, we have good grounds for thinking that athletes’ body is in the state of internal desynchronosis and strenuous physical loads might be one of the reasons.

Consequently, intensification of physical loads itself is most likely not the factor strengthening nonspecific adaptability and does not increase directly body adaptabilities to nonphysical loads. So this ability depends not on the number of classes of physical culture a week, absolutely not denying its positive effect in contemporary sedentary lifestyle of young men. Moreover, the obtained results prove that urgent reorganizations occur in the body in response to the action of the nonspecific factor, first of all, in the system of vegetative regulation, requiring compulsory record while organizing any kind of activity in this period, since vegetative tone changes provoke changes in the mechanism of response to load. So, adaptive effect should not be estimated by the level of sports achievements or increase of some physiological and especially physical indices.

Its assessment, if it is organized by the university, is to be based on the fundamentals of the integrated state of functional and adaptive abilities and estimate these indices regularly, in dynamics. Biorhythm structure is one of such fundamentals which analysis makes it possible to judge not only on the current state of body adaptabilities but also be the basis of the long-term forecast. It concerns sport too.

References

1. Velichko, T.I. Loskutov, V.A. Sergeeva, L.V. Adaptation of cardiovascular system of university students. // Psychoeducational and medicobiological, socioeconomic and sociocultural issues of physical culture, sport and tourism. Proceedings of the internat. theoretical and practical on-line conference. – Chelyabinsk, 2012. – Access mode: http://conf-a.narod.ru/9-10.10.2012.htm (In Russian)

2. Ecological aspects of the effect of daylight saving on human cardiovascular system / S.N. Samsonov, V.I. Manykina, P.G. Petrova, A.A. Strekalovskaya, V.I. Khasnulin // Ekologiya cheloveka. – 2009. – №1. – P. 20-23. (In Russian)

3. Iordanskaya, F.A. Yudintseva, M.S. Diagnostics and differentiated correction of symptoms of deadaptation to loads of the modern sport and integrated system of its preventive measures. – Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. - 1999. - №1. - P.18-24. (In Russian)

4. Povzun, A.A., Grigor’ev, V.A., Apokin, V.V., Efimova, Yu.S. Comparative analysis of seasonal change of body adaptabilities of female skiers by biorhythmological indices // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2010 – № 8. – P. 95-98. (In Russian)

5. Povzun, A.A., Apokin, V.V., Savinykh, L.E., Semenova, O.A. Seasonal changes of the state of nonspecific body adaptability of elite athletes // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2011 – № 5 – P. 86-88. (In Russian)

6. Mel’nichenko, E.V, Tarabrini, N.Yu., Parkhomenko, A.I. Vestibular reactions of cardiovascular system and their correction in athletes. Proceedings of Taurida national university named after Vernadskiy. Series “Biology and Chemistry”. V. 23(62) 2010. №1. P.74-79. (In Russian)

Author’s contacts: apokin_vv@mail.ru