E.A. Anisimova, Ph.D.
Ulyanovsk state pedagogical university named after I.N. Ul'yanov, Ulyanovsk
Key words: running, short distances, technical preparedness, pedagogical experiment, teaching techniques.
The dynamics of sprinters’ results is correlated not only with work of the peripheral locomotor system with an extremely complicated multisection kinematic system, but also on the work of central mechanisms of control of motor actions, located on different levels of central nervous system. Vegetative centers, being a part of central mechanisms along with motor and sensor ones, promote the correspondence of the level of vegetative process to intensity of motor actions. Sensor centers resolve power and speed parameters of working muscle groups. So the speed of running the competitive distance is to be considered ad a function of the whole body. So racing speed on the competitive distance is to be considered a general body function. A perfect individual technique of running steps is a key condition of exceeding athlete's capacities, stipulated by his phenotypical characteristics.

The purpose of the present study was theoretical substantiation of the new approaches providing for increase of the level of efficiency of the technique of running steps in sprint.

The objectives were to identify conditions improving technique in racing steps in sprint and test effectiveness of these conditions in the educational experiment.

Effectiveness of sprinter’s training process is stipulated by the gradual increase of running speed via the systematic use of training loads in view of the type of body adaptation to them. The major parameters of muscular work are volume and intensity in view of individual rhythm and frequency of alternating it with rest. The optimal ratio of volume and intensity of training work is identified based on the nature of body response, which is seen as a control method of the process of motor function development.

Among the main features of adaptation to increased muscular work is matching of changes in the indicators of internal environment of the body size and the nature of the external action. Adaptive changes [3, 4] are distinguished by urgent and cumulative effect. Urgent changes are influenced by training load, and when it is over the body comes to normal. Cumulative adaptation is stable with significant morphological changes in the operation of body systems. This conditions the requirement for continuity of the training process.

Appropriate reactions occur in the body influenced by regular training load that increase its ability to perform a workout of high intensity and volume. It should be kept in mind that the body gradually adapts to same exercises and the training effect disappears, hence the conditions of performance and the nature of load itself are to be changed. It is very important for the growth of sport skills to learn the rational technique of competitive actions. From the first workout a sprinter should do movements guided by the laws of physics, taking into account: the need to maintain the center of gravity of the body and its movement during running moves, the number of movements, controls and angles of placing body parts when placing a foot on a support, repulsion, phase of flight etc.

The slightest deviation from the individual time-space and space-power parameters of the running step leads to lower running speed.

Materials and methods. The educational experiment was carried out with 43 athletes aged 17-22 (second, first class athletes and candidate masters) to check the stipulated educational conditions of increase of the running speed at the competitive distance. The athletes were divided into control (CG) and experimental (EG) groups - 21 and 22 persons respectively.

A testing was made before the educational experiment to determine the initial fitness level of athletes and speed-strength indices of female 400 meter-runners at the 150 m distance interval. The processing of the findings has not revealed any significant differences in female athletes in both of the groups (p> 0.05). In addition, the running fitness indices of all athletes were defined using the 100, 200 and 400 m distances (crouch start).

The analysis of the findings has not revealed any significant differences among the female sprinters in both of the groups (p> 0.05). In the CG training sessions were conducted according to the traditional methodology, by the curriculum recommended by the Athletics Federation of Russia, while in the EG – in view of our methodology.

Optimal angles of foot on the support were calculated for each female sprinter individually according to her body-weight ratio, along with set amplitude of head and body oscillations in the anterior-posterior and lateral directions, measurements of the value of arm swings and their coordination with running steps.
Each jog of an athlete at all suggested distance intervals was performed only under the trainer’s supervision with fixing the degree of coordination of time-space and space-power parameters of running steps, specified in the characteristics to fit athletes’ individual features. Paper tubes with a smile kept on the face were used in the EG to resolve the neuromuscular tension of a female sprinter. This contributed to the elimination of excessive neuromuscular tension, providing for the necessary easiness and freedom of movement, improved psychoemotional state, increased satisfaction with training sessions.

At the end of the experiment the re-testing was made to determine the dynamics of speed and speed and strength indices of female athletes in both of the groups at the 150 m interval.

The results of the educational experiment have proved efficiency of the methodological approach to organization of educational and training process of qualified sprinters aged 18-22, based on the use of continuous monitoring of technique of execution of running steps in view of individual characteristics of female athletes, inclusive of the leading parameters of running step, details of placing leg on a support, repulsion etc. Its use stipulated for essential increase of the racing speed on the distances of 100, 200 and 400 m.

Herewith, the use of the teaching technique is also of great importance since it promotes face muscle relaxation, creating conditions for optimal control of the manner of tension of the muscles working while running
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