Structure and content of personal sports culture
Russian state university of physical culture, sport, youth and tourism (SCOLIPC), Moscow
Key words: culture, sport, personality, sports culture, physical and sports activity.
Nowadays due to the integration of Russia into the world culture the Russian educational system has to focus on the ways of formation of cultural strategies of personality development. The coming into force Bologna process is meant to activate personal mobility, its development in mastering of cultural values.
In the context of the culture creative educational paradigm it seems possible to redirect education to the importance of culture for personal development, self-actualization, the ability to research problems on one’s own, to think critically and work creatively. Modernization of modern education should provide the formation of the humanistic centered, culturally rich educational environment, because man can be introduced into the surrounding social community only via culture .
Sport – amateur, professional and “sport for all”, including children’s sport, university sport, sport for the middle-aged and elderly people, for the handicapped, applied vocational etc. – is a specific component of culture as a social phenomenon. This component is characterized by all the elements and features of the independent subsystem of the social sphere including material, human, institutional, procedural and spiritual ones. Sport arises in the subjective personal sphere via physiological needs and spiritual motive and then materializes in social processes of trainings and contests, social institutions and material facilities like stadiums, palaces of sport, sports gyms, swimming pools, courts etc. .
Till recently the phenomenon of sport was closely related to physical culture and was considered as its essential component. Herewith, the specificity of this social cultural phenomenon was developing as an independent sphere of human life with its own mission irreplaceable by any other component of the universal culture. The main universal value of the sports vector of culture of the planet population is in sport stipulating the creation of the system of theoretical and empirical knowledge on the ways, methods and techniques of the purposeful transformation of the human corporality and spirituality. There were found new solutions of the problem of augmentation of his physical, physiological and psychological resources, enhancement and correction of morphological characteristics, designing health forming technologies ensuring new capacities of man’s inning prolongation, enhancement of the content of training and educational processes of the rising generation.
Currently the broader philosophical and culturological view of sports culture and education in the field of physical culture and sport is being formed. This requires overcoming limited methodological structures associated with the unacceptable content and organization of physical education of children and youth, human and social awareness of all the wealth of this social phenomenon, which has a great cultural potential .
The social need for the development of sport among students is determined by the social and state needs to have a typical method of training psychophysical abilities. Sport is the logical end to the system "physical culture", as non-specialized education in the field of physical culture determines only the initial framework of the comprehensive development of motor skills and physical qualities, provides only prerequisites for their development, and sport opens up possibilities for young people at ultimate levels .
However, sport is one of the most effective and attractive for students forms of organization of physical education classes, gaining the importance in their way of life and lifestyle. The emotional aspect of the process of sports activity, shown in experiencing the feeling of satisfaction from the tangible positive effect of sports training, whether it is a victory at competitions or even a small victory over themselves, is important for students. According to sociological surveys, the vast majority of students would like to do those sports that correspond to their interests and abilities [19, 5, 22].
However, actually sport can have only a positive effect on a personality and provoke no deformation only in case of forming the students’ sports culture in the course of physical culture and sports education.
It’s commonly known that sports culture is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon. The structure and conceptual content of its structural components lack the common view. Researchers distinguish some components in respect to attitudes to the analysis of sports culture. Here are some of them.
When defining the essence of sports culture V.I. Stolyarov, S.Yu. Barinov (2009) proceed from the definitions of the concepts “culture” and “sport”.
In the authors’ opinion, the concept “culture” characterizes the process and results of activity of a social subject (individual, social group, society in general) dedicated to creation and preservation of such social phenomena that are estimated as the most essential, significant, namely considered as values. These values represent social ideals, senses, standards, behavior patterns etc., characterizing and directing various forms and areas of social practice, public relations, specific kinds of activity, including sports.
The authors consider sport as a sports competition, training for it and social phenomena associated with it, institutes, motions etc.
Based on these statements, the authors determine sports culture as the values socially acquired and passed on from one generation to another, socio-pedagogical processes and relations established within competitions and pre-season .
K.B. Tumar (2012) understands sports culture as an integral, well-organized system and personality characteristic of a person as a subject of sports activity, adequate for its goals and content and ensuring its implementation at the personal and socially acceptable levels. The author believes that the necessary and sufficient components of the content of personal sports culture are:
• motivational component, reflecting the need attitude of an individual to sports activity;
• personal-behavioral component as a set of volitional qualities and traits that define the sustainable positive attitude towards various aspects of sports life;
• physical component comprising functionalities of the body and physical qualities, providing practical realization of the motor function in the implementation of sports activity;
• information component which includes knowledge in the field of physical culture and sport, providing the orientation basis of sports activity;
• operational component comprising motor and organizational and methodological skills and abilities of realization of sports activity .
We understand personal sports culture as an integrative personality education, including a set of means, methods and results of sports activity, dedicated to perception, reproduction, creation and distribution of sports values and technologies. Personal sports culture is formed within the personality’s interiorization of the cultural and educational potential, sports values and technologies, resulting from the accumulated sports experience with a personal sense.
To our opinion, the components of sports culture can be allocated based on the studies of the personality structure.
The structure of complex phenomena, the human personality also refers to, represents a combination, hierarchy and certain interaction of different elements. Personality can be treated as a structural integrity of biogenic, psychogenic and sociogenic components, giving the grounds for distinguishing biological, psychological and social personality structures in the fields of study of biology, psychology and sociology respectively. Surely, sociology cannot take into account the biological personality structure, it is considered only in the aspect of the structural deformation, since it is accompanied by disturbance of people’s normal relations.
The psychological personality structure is more related to the social one, including a complex of emotions, personal experience, willful cravings, memory, abilities etc. Here individual normal mental sphere is important along with various deviations. But the social personality structure is not limited by a number of mental, subjective qualities, but includes a set of objective and subjective social characteristics of an individual, generating and functioning in the course of various activities, influenced by the communities and associations he is involved in. Hence, the personality’s activity is an acute characteristic of the social personality structure, defined as an independent action and cooperation with other people, which is fixed in the concept of actors.
Proceeding from the above, the elements of the social personality structure are as follows:
- method of realization in actions of social qualities displayed in the way of life and labor, sociopolitical, cultural-cognitive and family-communal activities, where labor is to be treated as an essential core of the personality structure, determining all its elements;
- objective personality social needs. Personality is an integral part of society and its structure is based on the social needs. In other words, the personality structure is determined by conformity to objective natural laws conditioning the development of a man as a social subject. Personality can be aware or unaware of these needs, but they exist and determine his or her behavior anyway;
- creativity, knowledge and skills. It is creativity that distinguishes a mature personality from an individual at the phase of the personality formation (some remain at this phase all life long). One can be creative not only in the naturally creative spheres of activity (science, art), but in the ones that seem not creative, like routine work in the labor sphere, where meanwhile creativity is shown and various labor-saving accessories, machines and mechanisms are being designed, making work more interesting and efficient. In short, creativity is the main attribute of a man as a personality;
- level of acquisition of social cultural values, notably the spiritual world of a personality;
- ethical standards and principles, views being followed by a personality – the deepest principles determining the strategy of human behavior. The views are related to personal awareness of own objective (existing regardless of consciousness) needs being some kind of a core of the personality structure .
The study of the personal social culture laid the basis for the allocated key components of the personal sports culture: cognitive, reflexive-activity, sociocommunicative, emotional-volitional and axiological (Chart 1). The characteristics of each of the components of the personal sports culture are stipulated.
Cognitive component. The cognitive component of sports culture (the combination of physical culture and sport values in the form of knowledge, beliefs, skills, etc.) involves mastering and transferring of accumulated framed knowledge in the field of sport, physical culture, Olympic education, which underlie the formation of the value attitude to sport and physical culture and sports activities, a forming and meaning making factor that determines actions of a modern man in the field of sport and physical culture, as well as coordinates his value system. This combination of acquired knowledge in physical culture and sport, human values, norms, ideals and traditions is a kind of informative, educational result of the cognitive process, reflected in personal sports culture.
Yu.M. Nikolaev  highlights the following aspects in the structure of knowledge in the field of physical culture and sport, reflecting the essence of integrative consideration of cultural phenomena: biomedical, educational, psychological, sociological, philosophical, culturological.
Biomedical knowledge on health and human health effect of exercise, its adaptation to physical stress, identify ways to improve the effectiveness of functional systems in sport and physical culture. Human health is considered and disclosed through the understanding of human integrity, and physical culture and sports activity, carried out in the integrity of its content and aimed at a psychosomatic, psychosocial and sociocultural in man, has the objective potential health effect.
The biomedical aspect of knowledge refers to the issues of human health and health improving effect from exercises, adaptation of human body to physical loads, allocation of the ways to enhance the activity of functional systems of the body during sports and physical culture occupations. Human health is considered and disclosed by understanding human integrity, and physical culture and sports activity, implemented in the integrity of its content and aimed at psychosomatic, psychosocial and sociocultural aspects in man, has an objective potential of a health-improving effect.
Chart. Structural components of personality sports culture
The pedagogical aspect of knowledge is primarily associated with education of a person, his comprehensive and harmonious development using physical culture and sport and methods of effectively organized educational and training processes.
The psychological aspect of knowledge about sport and physical culture is devoted to the consideration of sports activity as one of socially determined varieties of people's activity aimed at the harmonious physical and spiritual development of man and at the same time at the improvement of special abilities that help to achieve maximum results in sport.
The sociological aspect of knowledge enables to comprehend the essence of physical culture and sport in relation to identifying their roles and functions in human life and society.
Cultural aspect of knowledge reveals the internal relations of physical culture and sport in general culture from the perspective of the activity theory and needs.
Philosophical aspect of knowledge performs the methodological function regarding cognition of physical culture and sport, as their essence is part and parcel of a person. In this aspect, the role of man in the relationship with society, nature and culture, the problems of human corporality, the correlation of biological and social, physical and spiritual in man are investigated .
Thus, the above aspects of the knowledge about physical culture and sport highlight the integrative nature of these cultural phenomena and all their complexity, but the role of knowledge in the formation of personal sports culture can hardly be overestimated.
We define the cognitive component of personal sports culture as intelligence, including the body of acquired knowledge in the field of physical culture and sport, values, norms, ideals, traditions, stated in works about sport and physical culture, skills to use rational methods of mastering different types of physical culture and sports activities.
The reflexive activity-related component of personal sports culture presupposes the reflexive attitude to the values of sport and physical culture, physical culture and sports activities, oneself as a subject of this activity.
In pedagogics reflection is a process and result of fixing by the participants of the educational process of the state of their development, self-development and the reasons for this. Thanks to using reflective practice in the educational process effective subject-subject relationship can be established. Learning based on reflected experience is effective because reflection itself "always gives rise to new knowledge in the mind of an individual" .
The reflexive component of sports culture is associated with knowledge in the field of physical culture and sport and is expressed in the reflexive attitude to them, physical culture and sport activity, itself as a subject of this activity.
Socio-communicative component. Culture is a social phenomenon. People create and interpret culture. All manifestations and products of culture, including material, are acts of communication, because they have their value and are created for the purpose of its transmission. People involved in the cooperative activity not only reproduce the outlook reflected in their own consciousness, but create it too.
We believe that the involvement of an individual in sports culture is the result of assimilation of sports values in the system of physical culture and sports relations and can be carried out as a process of satisfaction of the communicative need of an individual.
We understand culture of personal communication during physical culture and sports activity as a comprehensive personality formation, characterized by a degree of assimilation, adoption, application and enrichment by a personality of the value potential of sport and physical culture (values, norms, knowledge).
Human communication formed during sports activity turns into individual natural and adequate needs and capabilities, an incentive for socialization and promotes the formation of own style of human behavior in the society .
Unique forms of communication of students who accept the type of game are created in the sphere of physical culture and its types. The aim of game as a specific form of communication of young people is physical and spiritual personality development. Hence, game is s genuine cultural value that facilitates contacts between people not only at the social, but also at the biological level, thereby participating in the process of socialization of an individual using most enjoyable for him means [6, 18].
Emotional and volitional component. In psychology, there are several points of view regarding the relationship of emotional and volitional regulation, but their close relationship is recognized in any case. This relationship is so close that in some cases it is difficult to draw a clear line between these aspects of regulation.
In our view, the emotional and volitional component of personal sports culture includes the ability to cope with difficulties and obstacles during physical culture and sports activities on the basis of self-regulation.
Conscious self-regulation in sport is realized by using personal self-actions, mostly verbal, differing in their psychological mechanisms. One of them is indirect, as it addresses the preparatory phase of voluntary action and mobilizes energy indirectly , by changing the essence of initial motives. It provides an incentive function in managing personal inner world. The statement of A.K. Perov (1964) on the transformation (reconsideration) of original motives, causing a new attitude to personal actions: improvement of self-discipline, willingness to do more, was essential when developing the mechanism of mediate self-actions .
Immediate self-action mechanism implements the compulsory function in the self-control of actions and acts primarily in the external environment .
Axiological component. The axiological component of personal sports culture is a combination of personally significant and personally valuable aspirations, ideals, beliefs, opinions, attitudes, relationships and knowledge in the field of sport, physical culture, relationships with other people during physical culture and sports activities, etc.
The axiological component is related to values, ideology, morality, social standards of human behavior in society. Man’s self-determination in culture is possible only on the basis of value relations. Modern axiology considers values as an element of personal structure, factor of determination and regulation of motivation to action, relates them with the ability to implement human essential powers, aimed at moral perfection. Pedagogical axiology examines values as specific formations in the structure of individual or social consciousness, which are ideal examples and guidelines for an individual and society. An individual or society as a whole are considered as carriers of values and the latter motivates person's actions. The nature of actions shows the attitude of a person to the world and to himself .
Values are considered as positive or negative importance of objects of the environment for a person, class, group, society in general, defined not by the features themselves, but their involvement in the sphere of human activity, interests and needs, social relations. Sport creates cultural values which perfectly fit the content of culture .
When analyzing the value potential we have identified the following types: intellectual values, motor values, technological values, intentional values, technological values and mobilization values of physical culture and sport. Intellectual values are knowledge of the methods and means of man’s physical development as the main constituent of organization of a healthy lifestyle. Motor values are the best examples of motor activity, physical fitness and physical development obtained during physical culture and sports activities. Technological values include numerous practical recommendations, manuals for effective health-improving and sports training. Intentional values show the popularity of physical culture and sports classes, maturity of public opinion about the prestige of physical culture and sport for society and an individual, socio-psychological attitudes and motivation for physical exercises and sport. Mobilization values include the ability for rational daily routine, discipline, good organization, perseverance and the qualities needed in extreme situations which are trained during sports events .
Thus, values define the attitude to the world and people and underlie value orientations. Value orientations are essential components of personal structure. The regulatory function of personal value orientations concerns all levels of the system of motivators of human activity. In connection with this as noted by A.G. Zdravomyslov (1986), the specificity of action of value orientations is that they function not only as ways of rationalizing behavior: they apply both to top cognitive structures and those commonly referred to subconscious structures. They direct will, attention and intelligence .
Conclusion. The study of the concept of the personal sports culture proves that the spiritual, value formation of a personality is fundamental for all active components of sports culture, since humanistic value relations penetrate into all its components, and the axiological component, that is a standard core of a personality, is a backbone element in sport culture, determining the specifics of the manifestation of other components. Herewith, development of other components strengthens the moral value core of the personality and provides for the formation of the personal sports culture within their continuous interaction.
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