Health and fitness service in system of estimated figures of human resources reproduction



I.V. Lavrent'eva, professor, Dr.Sc.Econ.
Ural sociopeconomic institute (branch)
Academy of labour and social relations, Perm
G.B. Belova, professor, Ph.D.
Perm state pedagogical university, Perm
L.I. Moiseeva, associate professor, Ph.D.
Ural state university of physical culture, Chelyabinsk

Key words: health and fitness service, estimated figures, reproduction process, human resource.

Introduction. The current transformational economic and political process in Russia and the orientation to the strategy of innovation development are calling for the qualitatively new status of the country human resources. Lately much attention has been paid to the quoted strategic objective both in political and scientific communities. When a country starts innovative development in order to maintain its competitiveness within the entire world community one is to accept the fact that human resources are its major factor. The lack of science-based approach to the problem of consideration of human assets and human resource depreciation, occasional researches of the problems of intensity and stress in labour activity of employees, the relationship with restoration and recreational activities leave the problems of economic growth in the discourse of the technocratic approach.

In conditions of the scientific and technical progress human resources characterize the economic and social viability of the economy [2]. Competitiveness of any country at the present stage of development depends not only on the raw material component, but on the effective use of labour, status and recovery of human resources. The modern global competition is the competition of the intangible: up to 30-40% of the value of companies falls on their "intangible property" created by the staff. The experience of developed countries shows how profitable the investments in human resource are: every dollar invested, for example, in education, brings from 2 to 10 dollars of profit.

According to experts’ evaluations, the loss of health resources of the working population of Russia amounts to 43% of GDP. Only due to premature mortality of the population in ages of active labour the country’s economic losses reached $ 1.5 billion, or 225 million man-years of active labor over the past decade [7]. Up to 90% of employees in case of illness go to work, these are primarily people who have many dependents and singles with no financial support. [3]

Some publications are especially unsettling [4-6, 8], where the proposition of children’s health deterioration is proved categorically: evolving processes of deceleration, passion for passive leisure activities, alcohol abuse, smoking, growth of invalidization:

  • The infant mortality rate in Russia is 3.5 times higher than in the EU countries, and mortality indices of children under 5 years are still at least twice higher than the EU averages. The indices of 75 % fall on external causes - injuries and poisoning. The suicide rate among adolescents is 4 times higher than in the EU countries.
  • Over the past 20 years there has been an increased incidence of children in all types of diseases. Only 4% of children in difficult life situations and children being trained in residential institutions can be considered healthy. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections incidence among children and adolescents is much higher than among the general population. The highest incidence is among 15-17 year olds.
  • Over the period 2000-2009 the number of children aged under 14 years who are registered due to alcoholism, has increased by 1.6 times, the number of adolescents aged 14-18 years – by 1.5 times. According to the WHO data, Russia is on the 4th place in the world in the prevalence of smoking among adolescents (over 30 % of boys and 17 % of girls aged 15-18 years are smokers).

The future belongs to the countries that focus their efforts on "human production", quality of life, health production. That is why it becomes obviously important to monitor the progress of the reproduction process - the process starting from obstetric aid, training, teaching to ensuring for a young worker join the corporate working environment, his primary adaptation to working conditions. Recently, due to transition to subsidiary economy, reduction of a great number of welfare programs, fall of the standard of life and the quality of life of the population, increasing incidence, shortening of life of the working population, the need to restore labor is obvious. With the transition to the market economy the most disadvantaged segment of activity was proved to be the one associated with manpower, which is more than any other associated with their restoration.

Putting forward the problem of human resources reproduction actualized the problem of its study and effective use of health and fitness services.

The reasons for this situation are marginalization and underestimation of the impact of the critically important at the moment health and fitness sphere on the status and development of reproduction processes. The sphere of health and fitness services is an object of study, which provides the necessary conditions for sustainable development, protection of life safety, preservation of reliability and country’s national security. To ensure the steady growth of providing health and fitness services to the population a new economic-managerial technology of functioning of the health and fitness sphere and estimated figures of human resources reproduction is to be developed and implemented by providing the health and fitness service.

It is hard to overestimate the importance of the health and fitness sphere and health and fitness services in settling the task of restoration of the wear-out of human resources. In domestic and foreign literature three major approaches to the concept of "service" are highlighted: sectoral, "alternative", specific. The definition of health and fitness service taken from the Russian State Standard [9] as "a performer’s activity to meet the consumer’s needs in promotion and protection of health, physical rehabilitation, as well as carrying out health and fitness and sports leisure will enable stating that this service has mixed characteristics and can be characterized in three aspects.

We can agree that, as for typical services, at the health and fitness service implementation production and consumption occur simultaneously, a consumer is involved in the working and service processes, conveyance of property is lacking, this service is characterized as "intangible".

Although "intangibility" as a typical characteristic of the health and fitness service is typical for it, the positive effect of servicing activity and the benefits can be assessed not only based on subjective level of satisfaction via emotional experiences, sensations, but also on a set of performance indicators of this service.

This requires solving the following tasks:

  • to describe the presence, composition, condition and wear of manpower;
  • to determine indicators of reproduction process, costs and results of restoration in the health and fitness sphere;
  • to characterize the human resources reproduction process in the regional social sphere and labor market;
  • to calculate overall indices of volume, quality of human resource and efficiency of its circulation.

The figure shows a detailed diagram of the analytical indices of the human resources reproduction process. When identifying the object of the system of interest several subsystems of study should be identified, where there is a pervasive sphere of health and fitness services.

The home reproduction subsystem ​ local processes are being implemented such as the birth of children and child care, teaching and training them (including on physical culture), early socialization and professionalization. This subsystem includes two-parent, conjugal, single parent families and home boarding schools and home (self-organized on the basis of parental cooperation) children’s preschool institutions.

The subsystem of the regional labor market and social reproduction consists of two parts. The first part includes institutions that form the regional labor market: - placement service, migration service, social services support the unemployed, non-governmental organizations engaged in employment, training and retraining of the population. The second part of the regional subsystem of social reproduction are preschool, general and vocational education, physical cultural institutions (including physical) and children's hospitals.

In the subsystem of using of human capital in enterprises, besides the use of labor in economic production the processes of completion of growing of the human capital (additional training and adaptation of young workers and specialists directly at work in the so-called incorporative period) are carried out. In addition, there is an increment of the value of working human capital, which is provided via advanced training, retraining, teaching new professions, recovery and rehabilitation of the worn human resource.

We assume, that indicative planning methods can play the key role in the formation of the regional economic mechanism of regulation of the human resources reproduction process. These methods are widely used in many countries of the world. In their application only general development guidelines are indicated, which are set in a certain range and are reference (but not compulsory).

For the regulation the human resources reproduction process indicative planning theoretically enables to optimally combine the methods of state regulation in the intrafamily reproduction planning, find the best option of "collective balance" between the planned start and market self-regulation. The principal result of this approach is in creation of the institutional framework of functioning of the socioeconomic mechanism of reproduction regulation, which would correspond to Russian transformational conditions, the current demographic situation and specifics of the control object.

Indicative planning and economic regulation mechanism based on it, aimed at reaching the desirable state of the human resources reproduction process in the case in point, make it possible to gradually get closer to this state by narrowing differences of various subjects of regulation, coordination and integration of their actions at various phases of the reproduction process, uniting its resources and achieving high results working in a team.

The methodology of indicative planning involves the calculation of indicators - parameters of limits. Within these limits the human resources reproduction system, which includes managerial mechanisms, connections between the phases of the reproduction process, material and financial flows, can stably operate and develop. Thereby, the indicators can be taken as limit values ​ - indicators of the process and be differentiated in the following sections. It is advisable to bind the indices to the subjects of the above reproduction spheres.  Some groups of indicators of presence, content, state and quality of human resources (HR), reflecting the course of the local reproduction process and the contribution of health and fitness sphere, are stipulated below (Tab. 1)

Indicators of human resources reproduction process and the role of the health and fitness sphere in it




Unit of measure (clarifications, design formula)


Total number of workers of the sphere of physical culture and sport

HRр tot.



Number of workers engaged in sports related service

HRsp tot.



Number of parents using health and fitness service

HRpar. tot.



Overall original cost of human resource in a family

OC HRfamily

thous. rub.


Current cost of human resources at the nurturing phase


thous. rub.


Standard unit of value of HR


thous. rub.


Structure constant of territorial HR, i.e. share of i ПКГ in the total number of HR


Р I= HRi /HRtot. 100


The total of physical depreciation of human resources


The measure of loss of natural and acquired qualities and characteristics (power, endurance, responsiveness, vision, hearing, defective memory, decrease of pliancy of mind, adaptabilities etc.) in the workers of the i ПКГ


The total of moral depreciation of the 1st type of worker of the sphere of physical culture and sport


The total of the moral depreciation of the type 1, i.e. the measure of loss of professional knowledge and skills, partial loss of qualification due to their partial demand (work not in the specialization, very narrow specialization etc.)


Coefficient of the type 1


The degree of loss of professional knowledge and skills, partial loss of qualification due to their partial demand (work not in the specialization, very narrow specialization etc.)


Moral depreciation of the type 2


Due to complete lack of demand and disappearance of profession


Validity coefficient of territorial HR


Medium preservation of psychophysiological and professional qualification characteristics of HR

VC P(M) = 1 – КФie (Мie1,2,3)


Coefficient of physical depreciation (moral depreciation1, 2) i ПКГ HR of the territory

CPie (Мie1,2,3)



Total number (physical volume) of HR using sport and fitness service in the year j


thous. pers.


Local increment of the average of the coefficient of physical development of one unit of HR in the m educational subsystem




Total increment of the average of the coefficient of intellectual development of one unit of HR in the educational sphere




Average incidence among children at the given territory in the year j




Share of children from the 1st health group (by medical standards) in the age group t




Numerical score of health state in the children’s age group t, compared with the reference quantity




Integral estimate of children’s health, compared with the weighted average reference quantity




Estimation of the level of physical fitness and physical development (compared with sociocultural standards) in the HC group q




Integral estimate of the average level of development of HR




Reproduction costs for the k reproduction process in j (year)


The costs at infant, preschool, school, youth phases, early socialization, increment are taken into account


General reproduction costs all in all


Costs for the whole period of reproduciton of HR,

RC = Σ RCk, thous. rub.

Conclusion. Proceeding from the approach to the system of estimated figures stipulated above and according to inclusion of the health and fitness sphere in the reproduction process, estimated figures are to be calculated by allocating dependences for the near future along with base, estimate and analytical indices of the human resources reproduction process. It will promote more reasoned managerial decisions in human resources reproduction and effective regulation on the use of health and fitness and sports services in the quoted process.


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