Ethnopedagogical approach in the system of physical education of children of the Middle Ob region

Ethnopedagogical approach in the system of physical education of children of the Middle Ob region


O.A. Fyntyne, Ph.D.
B.P. Yakovlev, professor, Dr.Sc.(Psychology)
Surgut state university KhMAR-Ugra, Surgut

Key words: children’s health, physical education, ethnopedagogical approach, regional program, methodological guidelines.

Health of the rising generation which foundation is being laid in the childhood causes much concern in the modern society. The scientists’ interest in the problem stipulates the need to comprehend the national cultural values in the cultural and historic aspects and reveal the rich treasuries of the national physical education. At the beginning of the 1990-s the journal “Fizicheskaya kultura v shkole” was a place for broad debates on reorganization of school physical culture bringing out various points of view regarding enhancement of school physical education. It should be noted that the discussion was creative, professional and focused on the search for the ways of reorganization of physical education at a comprehensive secondary school, but not imposed by authorities.

In 1996 a group of authors (V.I. Prokopenko, V.V. Prokopenko, N.V. Samolov) proposed the comprehensive national program on physical education of primary schoolchildren of the Khanty-Mansiisk autonomous region [1, 5]. This program is designed in view of the new mode of operation and the new administrative structure of the national school, which unites education and professionalization.

In the process of historical development the native people of the North - the Khanty and the Mansi have created a kind of time-tested educational system aimed at training of the rising generation for traditional industrial-economic activities.

According to S.M. Malinovsky, I.V. Malinovskaya, "the most significant ethnopsychological features of the peoples of the North are the predominance of imaginative thinking over formal logical, the qualitative difference of the cultural subject area in the preschool phase of the personality formation, the direct activity nature of traditional forms of education and culture reproduction. The relative prevalence of creative thinking compared with the formal logical, is not a feature of cultural backwardness, moreover, it is figurative thinking that underlies any creative activity" [5].

The contemporary process of physical education of schoolchildren of northern ethnic groups does not reflect the positive experience of traditional physical education these nations have gained. The model of "closed school" has not justified itself in the northern conditions. V.M. Kulemzin, N.V. Lukina note that: "All this is ruined when a child enters a boarding school and going to lessons becomes his main work. He is immediately deprived of the opportunity to approve as an independent creative personality, he is only taught, verbally. At home he learned more himself - by imitation, following his father or mother’s example. Those treated him with respect, as an equal, but at school there is a sharp line between him and adults. Children of the forest and tundra more keenly perceive social inequality rather than those from villages and towns, because they hardly heard in their family about the dependence on "boss". And the boarding school form means to them depersonalization" [3].

I.N. Gemuev notes that children, "being alienated from their own culture, in their mass were doomed to become marginal persons, who have not realized adequately the values of ​​neither their own nor Russian culture, within which education was (is being) carried out” [2].

The Khanty and the Mansi has always paid special attention to the problem of formation in the rising generation of the knowledge and skills to work, their physical and psychological training, conforming to everyday life and enterprising activity in the extreme conditions of the North.

Currently, it is necessary to revive the age-old traditions of national pedagogics. Any attempts to destroy national traditions and to introduce people in the alien culture, goals and activity patterns lead to spontaneous resistance. The key ethnic values ​​that used to cause the strongest impulse to action, are preserved, relying on the fixed in the written and oral forms sets of ideas and concepts about the place of specific nation in the world. Mastering these ideas, values, traditions, customs, applying them in personal experience and learning to use them should form a single system of national education, capable of resisting assimilation processes.

Thus, the peoples of the North have formed some kind of school of physical education of the rising generation in accordance with the socio-economic level of their development and specifics of natural and geographic environment. Naturally, it is the result of centuries-long experience of residence of these peoples in the extreme climatic conditions that co-opt all the best of what one generation accumulated and pass on to another.

Traditional physical education of the Khanty and Mansi people was directed to the need for survival in difficult northern conditions, as well as to the development of basic physical qualities, motor skills and abilities, which facilitate quick learning of the hunter, fisherman, deer-breeder and housewife’s professional skills. It should be noted that the process of physical education of the Khanty and Mansi people was used to be intended for military and enterprise training.

Over centuries the Khanty and Mansi people have been developing diverse teaching methods, meant to make studies effective. According to the analysis of the studied material, the following teaching methods were applied in the practice of physical education of the Khanty and Mansi people:

  •  oral presentation of the studied material (story, explanation, conversation);
  • display and demonstration of physical exercise;
  • practical methods: exercises and training sessions, imitations, competitions, self-study, test and evaluation.

In national pedagogics of the Khanty and the Mansi various teaching methods were revealed, which were used in the process of both general and physical education of generations. In order to develop and consolidate in the rising generation of certain physical, moral and volitional qualities, norms, rules and habits of moral behavior the methods of instruction, forcing and encouragement were the most effective. The people were focused on the methods of encouragement. Winners of competitions, contests, brave hunters and fishermen, soldiers were glorified and awarded with animal skins, sacrificial animals, etc [6].

All this is very important since a lot of what had been associated with traditions in the sphere of culture, ethics, national pedagogics and consequently physical education for many years, in the large part was considered old prejudices, which caused an almost irreparable damage to the identity of the peoples of the north - the Khanty and the Mansi and its culture. The urgent mission is to revive many native national action games, contests and original physical exercises and national sports, make them the heritage of the modern generation, especially children and young people.

Proceeding from the analysis of regional approaches to physical education of schoolchildren, at the moment when designing the principles of state educational policy polycultural and regional educational environment must be taken into account. So each specific region should have its own strategy and policy of development of the polycultural and educational blocks in their close relationship. This reflects the major strategic principle of development of systems during interchange and interaction with the environment [4, 6]

If speaking about the integration of education in the Russian Federation in general, it should be noted that thanks to the inclusion of the regional component to the physical education curriculum physical education is being developed in a slightly different direction. It is supplemented with the methods of unique and peculiar physical culture, characteristic for a particular region with its ethnic, sociocultural and climatic characteristics.

The theoretical analysis and synthesis of practical achievements suggest that ethnopedagogical education in the system of physical culture of pupils is complicated in the context of traditional pedagogical education. Among the difficulties - orientation of the school educational process to sharing of knowledge ("knowledge" approach) rather than the needs of an ethnoculturally developing personality (personality-centered ethnopedagogical approach): in the educational practice of secondary school physical education within the pupils’ international cooperation is not perceived as a special phenomenon that requires new methodological approaches to the educational process, there is a lack of technological procedures of training of the culture of international communication; the need to use the rich experience of national forms of physical education in recreation of pupils and undeveloped pedagogical basics of this process, insufficient use by teachers of educational institutions of ethnocultural physical education and the lack of methodological support of this process.

There is an acute need to develop such a system of pedagogical education at secondary comprehensive school, which will promote training of the culture of interethnic communication among children living in different ethnic regions of Russia.

The listed problems can be settled in case of development of absolutely new methodological guidelines and approaches to physical education of pupils in pedagogical education – ethnopedagogical one and substantiation of the conceptual model of implementation of the approach within the studied problem. The guidelines can be as follows:

– apart from the knowledge function, traditions of school physical education are to perform the value-orientation, directing, information and forecast functions, which, if implemented, help to solve the fundamental recreational, educational and training objectives in the pupils’ development and personal self-determination; 

– the regional specifics is shown (in view of the residence of the ethnic group) in choosing of the most efficient methods of health protection and promotion, taking into account the ways of supplementing each other and combining national and standard methods and technologies; 

– the specifics of the forms and methods of pupils’ physical education consists in their natural hardening, combined labour and physical education, traditional ethnic games, national holidays based on the occupations of physical culture and sport;

– the ethnocultural orientation of  physical education of the Khanty and the Mansi comprehensive school pupils is to be defined by the children’s health status, traditions and customs of the national culture, inter-succession of the forms and methods of physical education in school educational institutions;

– owing to the general orientation the methods selected are to facilitate further enhancement of physical education of schoolchildren and serve the common national purposes. In most cases children like not exercises themselves but the history of its origin and the present and former regulations of use; 

– enhancement of the curriculum by enriching it with elements of physical culture of the people of the North – the Khanty and the Mansi (national sports, games, contests and original physical exercises). We define the following baseline requirements: compliance with the general educational orientation of physical education; harmonious relation with the common for all schools curriculum; conformity with national and regional specifics; unification and classification; correspondence to conditions of a school lesson.


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  4. Pomomarev, N.I. Faster, higher, stronger: The regional program on physical education for 3-4(5)-formers of comprehensive schools: methodological courseware for Siberian and Ra Northern regions / N.I. Ponimarev. – Norilsk, 1996. – 46 P. (In Russian)
  5. Prokopenko, V.I. Khanty: Ethnopedagogics of physical education / V.I. Prokopenko. – Moscow: “National pedagogics” Association, 1994. – 108 P.  (In Russian)
  6. Sinyavsky, N.I.  Physical education of 1-11-formers based on traditions of the native people of the Khanty-Mansiisk region:  abstract of Ph.D. thesis.  – Moscow: MPU, 1998. – 22 P. (In Russian)

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