A.V. Danilova, candidate
O.N. Batsina, Ph.D.
F.D. Mukhamityanov, associate professor, Ph.D.
Tchaikovsky state institute of physical culture, Tchaikovsky
The level of social culture is determined more by the level of development, disclosure and use of individual human qualities. Specifically, in the system of common human cultural values good health and exercise performance in many ways determine abilities to master all the rest values and in this sense lay the basis, without which the process of mastering of cultural values itself is ineffective.
The purpose of the study was scientific substantiation of the fundamental difference and resemblance of the phenomena of the physical and sports personal cultures.
The studies of the literature and social reality revealed numerous unsettled issues such as the issue of sport as an independent phenomenon, the one of distinguishing social and sports personal cultures and the difference between physical and sports personal cultures. The answers to the raised questions are stipulated in the paper in the form of theses.
Sport as an independent phenomenon. In the Soviet theory of physical culture sport has been considered as one of key directions of the use of physical exercises along with educational (physical education), applied professional, recreational and rehabilitation ones for a long time. But recently the trend of differentiation of sport as a relatively independent sociocultural phenomenon is common due to numerous factors, as of the fact that nowadays there exist sports genetically not correlated to physical culture, while in the course of the century from mid XIX kinds of sport in which athletes competed in motor actions laid the basis of sport. The independent status of sport was defined in the federal law on physical culture and sport 2007. The term “sport” was defined as follows: sport is a sphere of sociocultural activity as a combination of sports, set in the form of competitions and specialized practice of training for them . As a versatile sociocultural phenomenon sport represents not only a special set of training classes and participation in contests, but refers to one of mass sociocultural movements and the most popular shows at the same time.
On existence of sports social and personal cultures. The sphere of sociocultural activity, sport refers to in compliance with the indicated law, is a rather versatile phenomenon, and the concept “sociocultural activity” has not been precisely and definitely defined and it is associated more with the obsolete concept “cultural-educative work”. Globally speaking, sociocultural activity is a historically conditioned and pedagogically directed socially actual process of transformation of culture and cultural values into the object of the interaction of an individual and social groups to develop every member of society .
A.Ya. Flier notes that in modern science culture is interpreted as axiological, normative regulatory and symbolic-informational content of any sphere of worthy human activity . Culture is implemented in many different spheres of human activity, including those related to human corporeality. Any activity is formed and developed in accordance with specific cultural standards, “cultural scenarios activity" . The introduction of culture into activity stipulates for arising of the culture of specific activity: pedagogical culture, aesthetic culture, sports culture and physical culture etc. Every “culture of sphere of activity” has its specific historical selection, choice of acceptable forms and technologies of realization of activity and cooperation of people chosen not only by the features of their practical efficiency, but also by criteria of social acceptability .
Sport exists as a set of sports. Kind of sport in the wording of the Federal law 2007 is determined as a separate area of social relations with its rules, environment of classes, facilities and equipment used . This definition emphasizes the collective nature of this activity, and collective activity in its development takes on the character of social practice. Social practice is interpreted as a combination of human experience concerning certain typical activity, which has appeared in a specific historical time and in a certain \ sociocultural context. In other words, practice is understood as an integral historical sociocultural organization of knowledge, thinking and activity, ensuring the reproduction of a particular social reality, i.e. it is the unity of theory and practice . In addition to this concept the concept "sociocultural practice" is widely used, interpreted as a creative workmanship, the implementation of which coincides with the change of the subjects themselves. Kind of sport can be defined as sociocultural practice, made of cultural and social components. One is to distinguish two levels (elements) in the cultural component which are: conceptually-cognitive and cognitive-technological. The social component is also represented by two elements: activity and social interaction. Every sport as a sociocultural practice has a particular sociocultural environment, which can be characterized as an educative environment, as a sports subculture. A young athlete, placed in such an environment (subculture), acquires, both sports competence and develops personal qualities, ensuring his success in this activity. Namely, sports personal culture of a young athlete is being formed. The fundamentals in the study of the public and personal sports cultures are determined in the works of V.K. Balsevich, L.I. Lubysheva, V.I. Stolyarov, S.Yu. Barinov, published in the last decade.
The difference between physical and sports personal cultures. The theoretical propositions on the structure and essence of the physical and sports personal cultures are specified in the works of V.K. Balsevich, N.N. Visitey, M.Ya. Vilensky, A.V. Lotonenko, L.I. Lubysheva, L.P. Matveev, V.I. Stolyarov. On the basis of the analysis of the works of the listed authors and theses made under their supervision, it can be stated that the structures of the physical and sports personal cultures do not fundamentally differ from each other and are made of the two components: cultural and social. The differences between the analyzed phenomena can be traced in the content (Table 1), methods and forms of formation. Sports activity imposes higher requirements to the level of development of both athlete’s personal (volitional and moral first of all), and conditional and coordination abilities. At the same time, this high level enables man to successfully assert oneself and self-actualize in different spheres of activity, and the socialization process goes faster. Personal sports culture is being developed both in the course of classes at sport schools and within the sports focused physical education.
The essence of physical and sports personal cultures
Personal physical culture
Personal sports culture
Cultural component (conceptually-cognitive and cognitive-technological elements)
Social component (activity and resultant elements and social interaction)
Healthy way of life (lifestyle):
Sports way of life (lifestyle):
Conclusion. Proceeding from the studies, the phenomena of the physical and sports personal cultures represent the level of development of the physical and sports social cultures in a person, correlated but still independent sociocultural phenomena.
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