Biorhythmological characteristics of status of body adaptabilities of swimmers from different geogrpahical zones

Biorhythmological characteristics of status of body adaptabilities of swimmers from different geogrpahical zones

ˑ: 

A.A. Povzun, associate professor, Ph.D. 
V.V. Apokin, associate professor, Ph.D. V.Yu. Losev, associate professor, Ph.D. 
A.R. Snigirev, associate professor, Ph.D. Surgut state university of KhMAR-Ugra, Surgut

Key words: biorhythm, chronobiological analysis, flights, body adaptabilities, ecological factors.

Nowadays it is no doubt that achievement of sports result and its growth is based on adaptive processes taking place in an athlete’s body and this is the reason why the mechanism of adaptation to physical loadings was studied and described in detail in the aspect of both quantity and quality. But since training loadings the body can react to adequately, without a negative effect are almost at the limit, the issue of the status of athlete’s adaptabilities and body reserves providing it is getting more relevant for there is hardly a reason to increase more the loadings intended for improvement of sports result. Therefore, special attention is to be paid to profound, detailed and complex study of the rules and conditions of correlation of different factors of cyclic macrostructure of the process of individual development. Perspectives of optimization of the long-term sports performance, purposeful control of its dynamic changes and increase of its efficiency in many ways depend on development of such researches, so any activity in this direction is relevant and perspective, of certain fundamental and applied value, and was the direction of the present study.

First and foremost, the case is that adjustment or adaptation to new conditions or factors takes place at the expense of body’s functional resources, the specific “biosocial cost” called by the term “value of adaptation” suggested by I.V. Davydovsky in the middle of the last century [1]. The cost has exceeded the “biosocial budget” and demands from the body more efforts for a complete adaptation mechanism. It is also essential that the status of adaptabilities is taken as one of the basic criteria of human health more frequently. So the problem is relevant not only for the purpose of enhancement of professional skills but for protection of elite athletes’ health. Regardless of the growing importance of health, its effect on health characteristics is still unclear, as the role of the occupations of physical culture and sport as a factor of health promotion is being recognized more actively. The so called positive health concept defined in the end of the last century [2] takes into account first dynamic characteristics in health evaluation, based on the ability to maintain the balance of body and environment, which is marked as health balance and, in fact, conforms to the present concept as an ability to adapt to environment. Such a definition makes us treat the issue of health status, inclusive of athletes, in a different way and design a new strategy and tactics of its solution.

Thus, decrease of body adaptabilities is in a certain way a new risk factor for physiologists and clinicians, so adequate evaluation criteria are to be found and trainers are to search for new methods of organization of training process in view of the new factors. The factors include morphofunctional indices, sports activity and its characteristics related to specific sport, methodological guidelines of organization of the training process and finally social and ecological-geographical climatic conditions of conducted trainings. The last factor is getting more valuable at present.

Reacting and adapting to physical loadings athlete’s body is still in certain ecological conditions of the region of his residence and feels the whole range of its effects. It is to be noted that such an effect can be extremely positive and in some sports the advantages of athletes coming from specific geographical areas are quite common. However, these advantages are clear only because they determine sports result, the improvement of which is the goal of sports training and it is easy to estimate. Hence, trainer is to understand how to consider these factors when organizing a training, ensuring improvement of sport skills, especially in case of allegedly unfavourable geographical climatic conditions not good for body adaptabilities, decreasing its reserves. The matter is not just relevant for athletes living and training in the North but needs understanding of the consequences first. Proceeding from the results of the analysis of the seasonal changes of biorhythms, largely characterizing body reserve abilities, we made an attempt to estimate the status of athletes' body adaptabilities, including elite ones living in the Middle Ob region [3,4], and established that notwithstanding high functional indices and sport skills these adaptabilities and therefore health “reserve” remain on the level that, unfortunately, is not high.

In the present paper, we made an attempt to estimate by means of the biorhythmological approach the direct influence of ecological factors on the status of athletes' adaptabilities by comparing jet fatigue of two teams of swimmers living and training in absolutely different geographical climatic zones and influenced by completely different ecological factors.

Swimmers of the same gender, age group, nationality and sports rank of master of sport or higher, living in different regions had their physiological indices tested. Athletes of the team 1 – from Surgut, the Tyumen region, territory equated with the Far Northern conditions, and the team 2 – from the Southern city Alma-Ata, the Republic of Kazakhstan. Both of the teams had the same flight 4 time zones to the west to the training camp and spent 21 day in the camp. Measurements were made the day before flying to the training camp, right after crossing 4 time zones to the West and when arriving to the sports base, on the second week and right before coming back (after a 3-week stay out of their geographical area and the main time zone) and for 3 days from arrival home. Chronobiological measurements were made 4 times a day: at 8, 12, 16 and 20 o’clock. The indices measured were as follows: t – body temperature (С0), HR – heart rate (bpm), SAP – systolic arterial pressure (mm Hg), DAP – diastolic arterial pressure (mm Hg). The obtained data laid the basis for the calculations of: PP – pulse pressure (PP = SAP-DAP mm Hg), Pdyn – average dynamic pressure (Pdyn = 0,42 (SAP - DAP) + DAP mm Hg), SO – systolic output (SO = 100+0,5 (SAP-DAP) - 0,6 DAP -0,6В (ml). where B - age), CO – cardiac output (CO = SO х HR l/min). The obtained data were subject to standard processing. The parameters estimated included the daily mean (mesor), rhythm amplitude, function peak time (acrophase) and peak-to-peak value (chronodesm).

Changes of circadian organization of key hemodynamic indices among Surgut athletes after a flight and in conditions of long-term stay out of their geographical area and the main time zone are adduced in Table 1.

Table 1. Changes of key rhythm indices of cardiovascular system among Surgut athletes after a flight and in conditions of long-term stay out of their geographical area and the main time zone.

Changes of circadian organization of daily means (mesors)

 

At home

day 1

day 2

day 3

day 10

day 14

day 21

At home

HR

68,8±2,71

68,6±3,04

69,2±3,21

69,5±2,97

67,4±2,19

66,1±2,37

66,1±3,03

67,7±3,31

SO

53,4±1,21

52,4±1,97

52,7±1,82

52,3±1,54

54,4±1,22

52,7±1,14

53,9±1,67

51,5±2,12

CO

3,68±0,12

3,58±0,22

3,65±0,41

3,64±0,29

3,72±0,19

3,49±0,14

3,56±0,21

3,48±0,24

SAP

124,0±2,07

125,2±3,23

126,3±2,91

126,4±2,50

123,6±2,77

127,3±2,64

127,1±2,97

126,6±3,01

DAP

80,0±1,87

81,5±1,90

84,3±2,12

82,1±1,91

78,6±1,87

82,2±1,61

80,9±1,81

82,9±2,11

PP

44,0±1,33

43,7±2,77

44,6±2,17

44,4±1,42

45,2±1,51

45,1±1,31

46,1±1,66

43,7±2,22

Pdyn

98,4±1,34

99,8±1,47

100,4±1,71

100,7±1,67

97,5±1,54

101,1±1,86

100,3±1,74

101,2±1,91

body t

36,4±0,02

36,4±0,04

36,3±0,05

36,5±0,04

36,5±0,02

36,4±0,03

36,5±0,03

36,5±0,04

Changes of circadian organization of amplitudes

HR

7,71±1,55

7,88±1,64

7,0±1,51

8,68±1,33

7,56±0,82

6,44±1,22

6,28±2,02

7,53±1,71

SO

6,92±1,19

5,93±1,87

6,26±1,77

5,63±1,53

6,53±1,20

5,6±1,27

5,14±1,23

7,87±1,99

CO

0,80±0,05

0,43±0,07

0,59±0,06

0,61±0,08

0,54±0,07

0,53±0,05

0,58±0,06

0,48±0,07

SAP

8,67±1,23

6,33±1,44

6,81±2,03

5,53±1,97

6,08±1,65

9,14±1,35

7,27±1,77

7,37±2,11

DAP

5,67±0,57

4,0±1,13

4,33±1,52

6,25±1,20

7,28±1,33

7,78±0,71

6,17±1,13

5,71±1,87

PP

9,67±0,91

5,33±1,01

5,04±1,12

4,92±1,87

4,89±0,91

5,58±1,13

4,29±1,34

6,83±1,71

Pdyn

4,83±1,57

4,97±1,61

8,3±1,64

5,37±1,44

5,65±1,19

7,76±1,33

6,41±1,43

4,27±1,51

body t

0,34±0,03

0,24±0,04

0,35±0,04

0,3±0,05

0,2±0,02

0,28±0,03

0,17±0,03

0,19±0,04

Changes of function peak time (acrophase)

HR

16.00

20.00

20.00

12.00

16.00

16.00

20.00

16.00

SO

16.00

8.00

16.00

20.00

16.00

16.00

8.00

8.00

CO

16.00

20.00

20.00

16.00

16.00

20.00

20.00

16.00

SAP

16.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

12.00

8.00

16.00

20.00

DAP

12.00

16.00

8.00

8.00

12.00

8.00

20.00

20.00

PP

16.00

8.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

20.00

8.00

Pdyn

16.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

12.00

8.00

12.00

16.00

body t

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

12.00

16.00

20.00

16.00

Changes of circadian organization of peak-to-peak values (chronodesms)

HR

60,8-76,5

57,8-76,5

58,0-76,2

60,7-76,2

59,7-73,2

58,3-72,1

59,3-72,0

60,1-75,0

SO

47,0-60,3

48,7-56,1

48,5-57,2

47,2-57,6

49,7-60,2

50,4-55,5

50,5-57,0

46,8-57,3

CO

3,08-4,48

3,11-4,02

2,94-4,22

3,05-4,13

3,14-4,20

3,01-3,89

3,17-3,98

3,04-3,92

SAP

117,5-130,7

119,2-129,8

118,8-132,7

119,3-131,5

118,0-129,8

122,0-134,7

123,0-131,3

121,8-130,8

DAP

75,2-85,7

78,2-85,0

75,2-87,0

75,2-88,3

71,8-84,7

78,3-86,2

78,3-84,5

78,3-87,7

PP

36,7-53,3

38,8-48,8

40,7-49,7

40,0-48,5

41,7-48,3

41,5-49,3

41,7-49,7

39,0-50,3

Pdyn

94,5-102,1

96,2-103,4

93,7-105,7

94,0-106,1

91,3-103,1

96,9-106,3

97,5-103,1

97,4-105,1

body t

36,2-36,7

36,2-36,6

36,2-36,6

36,2-36,7

36,2-36,7

36,0-36,7

36,3-36,7

36,3-36,7

 

We have already presented the detailed analysis of these results before [5], so here we only remind of the lack of fundamental desynchronosis and decrease of its characteristics in the northern athletes. An offset of the zone standard time provokes coordinated and urgent rhythm reorganizations, but these changes are not critical or pathological and show a quite satisfactory status of body adaptabilities. Moreover, specific response to loading testified to

systemic regulatory displacement of hemodynamic loading to bloodstream rather than decrease of these abilities which is one of the main training effects in elite athletes, promoting natural limitation of energy expenditure and decreasing ergotropic and intensifying trophotropic effects of vegetative nervous system [6].

Changes of the circadian organization of the key hemodynamic indices among Alma-Ata athletes after a flight and in conditions of the long-term stay out of their geographical area and the main time zone are adduced in Table 2.

Table 2. Changes of key rhythm indices of cardiovascular system among Alma-Ata athletes after a flight and in conditions of the long-term stay out of their geographical area and the main time zone.                             

Changes of circadian organization of daily means (mesors)

 

At home

day 1

day 2

day 3

day 10

day 14

day 21

At home

HR

68,3±2,21

68,9±2,97

67,8±2,81

67,9±2,55

70,9±1,81

67,4±2,41

67,7±2,77

69,5±3,07

SO

57,0±1,54

58,9±1,74

58,3±1,52

58,7±1,58

56,6±1,32

59,7±1,47

59,5±1,74

59,80±1,91

CO

3,88±0,09

4,06±0,32

3,95±0,24

3,98±0,33

4,01±0,27

4,03±0,19

4,03±0,23

4,15±0,52

SAP

121,5±1,91

124,5±1,91

122,2±2,77

123,8±2,64

122,2±1,91

119,7±2,11

121,7±1,97

123,2±3,01

DAP

75,6±1,31

75,2±1,90

74,7±1,81

75,1±1,91

76,3±1,58

72,3±1,61

73,4±1,87

73,9±1,93

PP

45,9±1,43

49,3±1,97

47,4±1,56

48,7±1,39

45,9±1,30

47,4±1,91

48,3±2,07

49,4±2,31

Pdyn

94,9±1,31

95,9±1,91

94,7±1,81

95,6±1,31

95,6±1,47

92,2±1,67

93,7±1,81

94,6±1,92

body t

36,6±0,02

36,7±0,03

36,6±0,03

36,6±0,05

36,6±0,03

36,6±0,02

36,6±0,03

36,6±0,03

Changes of circadian organization of amplitudes

 

At home

day 1

day 2

day 3

day 10

day 14

day 21

At home

HR

6,84±1,31

5,78±1,58

5,63±1,51

5,53±1,33

8,53±0,71

6,63±1,30

7,56±1,87

8,75±2,11

SO

4,73±1,22

4,75±1,36

3,81±1,31

3,16±1,41

3,36±1,16

4,87±1,24

3,26±1,33

3,36±1,49

CO

0,39±0,05

0,51±0,09

0,28±0,06

0,46±0,04

0,62±0,05

0,51±0,06

0,52±0,06

0,49±0,06

SAP

6,5±0,95

9,75±1,32

4,91±1,89

5,44±2,02

6,38±1,42

7,5±1,22

6,3±1,72

6,27±1,77

DAP

4,44±0,52

4,81±1,29

3,75±1,22

4,94±1,32

4,69±1,15

3,34±1,22

2,31±1,62

3,88±1,67

PP

4,03±0,22

7,94±1,12

3,56±1,41

4,56±1,22

4,78±0,62

6,81±1,17

4,69±1,32

6,38±1,80

Pdyn

5,01±1,61

6,45±1,87

3,99±1,72

5,15±1,69

5,13±1,23

3,84±1,19

3,44±1,37

2,92±1,33

body t

0,14±0,03

0,09±0,03

0,13±0,04

0,11±0,03

0,14±0,02

0,16±0,02

0,15±0,03

0,13±0,03

Changes of function peak time (acrophase)

 

At home

day 1

day 2

day 3

day 10

day 14

day 21

At home

HR

20.00

16.00

20.00

20.00

16.00

16.00

12.00

16.00

SO

8.00

16.00

8.00

16.00

8.00

8.00

20.00

16.00

CO

20.00

16.00

20.00

20.00

12.00

16.00

20.00

16.00

SAP

16.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

16.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

DAP

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

16.00

16.00

12.00

20.00

PP

20.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

Pdyn

16.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

16.00

20.00

16.00

20.00

body t

20.00

16.00

20.00

20.00

16.00

12.00

16.00

20.00

Changes of circadian organization of peak-to-peak values (chronodesms)

 

At home

day 1

day 2

day 3

day 10

day 14

day 21

At home

HR

59,5-75,0

60,6-74,3

61,3-73,5

60,5-73,0

60,5-78,0

58,0-74,1

56,0-76,5

61,2-77,0

SO

52,5-61,0

54,3-63,4

55,6-62,1

54,6-61,8

53,1-59,8

56-64,6

56,7-62,8

54,6-64,0

CO

3,58-4,17

3,61-4,52

3,64-4,22

3,60-4,43

3,55-4,55

3,53-4,51

3,29-4,52

3,55-4,81

SAP

116,3-127,2

115,5-134,3

114,7-127,0

114,7-129,3

113,0-128,5

112,3-127,2

116,2-126,0

116,2-128,5

DAP

69,8-80,0

69,2-80,0

70,1-78,5

70,0-79,5

70,0-81,1

68,3-75,5

70,5-75,8

70,5-77,7

PP

41,5-49,5

43,0-57,2

43,2-51,0

42,7-53,2

41,0-49,7

40,0-54,3

44,5-53,0

42,3-55,8

Pdyn

89,3-99,4

88,9-102,3

88,7-98,6

88,9-99,8

88,1-100,7

87,0-96,1

90,2-96,6

90,9-97,2

body t

36,5-36,7

36,5-36,8

36,5-36,8

36,5-36,7

36,5-36,7

36,4-36,8

36,5-36,8

36,6-36,7

Even a shallow comparative study does not show any significant changes in the rhythm structure and decrease of its characteristics in the second case, but the status and response to loading among the athletes living in the South is different.

So, all at once, it turned out that regardless of living in conditions with very unstable duration of daylight hours, the preflight coordination of rhythms, that is the position of acrophases in their structure, seems more preferable in the group 1. The rhythm maximums of all hemodynamic indices are almost the same, so the body’s adaptation reserve should be a bit higher. But it seems lacking any advantages as neither of the groups manages to avoid the consequences of external desynchronosis, which is, unfortunately, insurmountable if having a flight. Another problem is to understand the depth of regulatory reorganizations and their relation to a flight. In this case the concern is caused by almost complete correspondence of time maximums of cardiac outputs which is the final index of efficiency of blood circulation and HR, that must provide CO in this case, which is not typical for elite athletes. Such a result suggests inner desynchronosis, which regardless of more favourable geographical climatic conditions, must be present in the group 2. It must be correlated with intensity of training and competitive physical loadings [7], and is functionally shown in development of fatigue.

Nevertheless, the response to flight is absolutely adequate in this group of athletes and indicates to existence of reserve of both functional and adaptive abilities. The reserve is proved first of all by practically total invariance of mesors of all the studied hemodynamic indices, the mean value for neither of which grows or drops below the initial value during the whole stay. In view of sports skill level and thus level of physical development of the studied group, it can indicate only to uselessness of activation of functional reserves of athletes’ body.

However, urgent response to loading exists and is being realized in this group by activating first of all adaptabilities, reflecting a sudden substantial change of amplitudes and ranges, especially right after a flight. Adequate body response to unpredictable effects is provided at the expense of the oscillation amplitude and increase of excursion provokes wider “selection” for the body and thus its more adequate response [8] and better adaptability. But in our case this reserve is enough only for an urgent response, and amplitudes and ranges tend to decrease remarkably already on the second day after the flight. It means that body adaptabilities decrease, the values, at least of the amplitudes, hardly drop below the initial ones, and this steady state of rhythm indices can promote two situations. Either the body functional reserve is so big, that the four-hour offset of the central standard time is not really a significant loading for athletes of this group and then the acute phase of external desynchronosis is the only rhythm disturbance accompanying the flight. Or originally existing problems in the rhythm structure prevent realization of such a reserve to the full. The growth of the HR and CO range values at the steady-state SO and remarkable increase of the indices of systolic arterial pressure at steady-state mesor values makes such a scenario quite possible. The loading, in this case the one ensuring blood circulation, maybe insignificantly, but shifts to heart.

It is to be recalled that in the group of athletes of the northern region the situation is rather different and expressed in loading hemodynamic displacement to bloodstream. Different direction of activation of the circulatory system and mobilization of the central level of its management also testifies to the changed Kerdo index, dropping essentially to vagotonia in the group 1 and exactly the opposite in the group 2, though less pronounced. As follows from this situation, the body response to the same post-flight loadings is multidirectional in our case and athletes of the northern region achieve the result by economizing adaptive resources, and of the southern – by not very pronounced but activation of these resources. For the unique estimate of efficiency of this result one is to take into account the goals trainers set before athletes and expected sports results, though the response of the athletes of the group 1 seems more preferable in view of estimation of efficiency of the training effect itself.

Proceeding from the achieved result, trainers are to take into account the influence of regional factors of the athlete whose adaptabilities are thoroughly estimated due to potential significance of the result of this influence, as you can see from our data.

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Author’s contacts: apokin_vv@mail.ru