Internal resource of development of the sphere of physical culture and sport in new ukrainian economy
Ya.V. Leonov, associate professor, Ph.D.
I.I. Prikhod’ko, professor, Ph.D.
G.N. Putyatina, associate professor, Ph.D.
Kharkov state academy of physical culture, Kharkov
Key words: sphere of physical culture and sport, organization and management approach, effective financial and economic mechanism, monitoring, innovative models, marketing, social technologies.
Introduction. Theory and practice in the sphere of physical culture and sport confirm that despite the big imbalance of social forces, the historical mission of the health and fitness and sports movement is not over and has a great potential to advance in its development. Even against the background of the multiparty state structure and variety of public organizations, the agents of management of physical culture and sport work consecutively and efficiently - elite sport is being actively promoted (participation of Ukrainian athletes in Olympic and Paralympic games, World and European championships, organization and holding of international competitions etc.). However, the issues of human health protection and promotion by means of physical culture are less conceptually covered, which is proved by the lack of the strategy of regional development of mass sport, accessibility of sports and physical training services, lack of regular propaganda and popularization of active way of life.
The purpose of the present study was to allocate internal resources of development of the sphere of physical culture and sport in conditions of new economy in Ukraine.
Materials and methods. The research methods used were as follows: analysis of literature sources and documents, system functional analysis and organizational analysis.
Results and discussion. Nowadays mass media are introducing the population into participation in sports mass and sport events (matches, competitions, festivals etc.), actively promoting not the healthy way of life, but, unfortunately, forming a passive person – fan – via alcohol and cigarette, pharmacological production advertising etc. It results in hypodynamia among young and middle-aged men and women, that become a global problem of the modern times provoking imbalance of cardiovascular system. On the evidence of the M.D. Strazhesko institute of cardiology, the mortality statistics from myocardial infarction is still repeatedly high in Ukraine - 30% of patients die of acute myocardial infarction, when in the West it is only 5%. It is to be marked, that these factors are bad for a person: decrease health indices and working efficiency, provoke depressions etc.
The pessimistic estimations of some analysts regarding the growing indifference of people (all age groups) to occupations of physical culture and increasing of motor activity were proved wrong too. Proceeding from the authors’ study, the sports and physical training movement is rated rather high - over 80% of the respondents understand and are aware of the need for healthy and active way of life. The consolidation of the role of the sphere of physical culture and sport in social life is confirmed by the position of the Ministry of education and science, youth and sports, NOC, SCU: “The Ukrainian sports and physical training movement has perspectives and what is most important - innovative ideas and projects”. Herewith, the problems in the operation of the sphere of physical culture and sport are acute and vital and the former methods of operation are not effective enough.
The starting position of the new approach is very simple: in the transformational environment, competition, structural dynamics of patterns of ownership; in conditions when 60% of the population consider their standard of life far lower than average - the agents of management of the sphere of physical culture and sport cannot be weak and low-activity not to mention their aspiration to save the outdated method of their organizational structure and principles of operation.
The state and public administration of physical culture and sport should introduce more actively innovative management programs and patterns, financial and economic mechanisms and social technologies, more suitable for integration of the efforts of people, authorities and business.
Soviet and foreign scientists and experts are working at the ways of enhancement of the sports and physical training activity within the new economy [2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9] and have outlined the ways of strategic development of the sphere of physical culture and sport [1, 6, 8]. However, the problem of operation of the sphere of physical culture and sport itself in the modern environment and the projects of its solution are hardly studied.
In the forming pattern of coordination of new political and business forces management of the sphere of physical culture and sport defines its cross-sectoral mission between: “life conditions - political situation - economic strategy - control mechanisms intended to ensure the healthy nation”.
Some strong organizational and management and financial and economic positions still remained from the recent past in the sphere of physical culture and sport:
· Real property (sports facilities: stadiums, palaces of sport, swimming pools, gyms etc.) - a huge sector in physical and value terms estimated at over 2,5 billion dollars.
· The legal status fixed in the legislation and long-term business practice, naturally needs to be corrected in compliance with the requirements of the modern times.
· The established territorial-departmental multidivisional organizational structure with the probably insufficiently effective but quite real technology of sports and physical training activity.
· The isolated financial and economic mechanism (planning, formation and disposition of funds).
· Existence of educational institutions dedicated to competent personnel training (specialized schools, colleges, universities).
· The system of training of sports reserve (sport schools, Olympic training centres, colleges of Olympic reserve).
All the stipulated above can be considered as a basis of the stable sphere of physical culture and sport, but it is extremely dangerous to treat it as a secure foundation – one can miss the moment of unexpected and incorrigible spontaneous displacements. Therefore, the goal of the whole sports and physical training system is an advance to the model of controlled development based on the internal resource potential.
We believe that internal resources of the sports and physical training system are extremely understudied. Even those with specific quantitative measures (number of athletes and ones involved in health and fitness activity, property cost and status, funds etc.) require constant estimation and overvalue; appraisal depreciation, loss and mechanism design accounting; capacity utilization calculations etc. And it is only a part of the internal resource. In the modern environment the structure of the “internal resource” is to include more complex components such as: public authority and organizational activity, quick-reaction capability, teamwork (corporate) factor, professional and economic value, level of information system, self-discipline, innovative spirit etc. This part of the resource potential of the sports and physical training system – we suggest defining “special resource” – has no exact measures but its estimation and build-up is of crucial importance.
Firstly, since the “special resource” equals the basic one (property and financial) in its efficiency. Secondly, it is inexhaustible in its development, while the basic one is very limited. Thirdly, the “special resource” is formed in the intellectual coordinates “interests - knowledge - standards of conduct - organizational technologies”, promoting improvement of more favourable forecasts and more mobility in the sports and physical training practice by taking relevant management decisions.
The suggested complex representation of the nature and structure of the internal resource of the sports and physical training system specifies the priority directions of strategic development of the sphere of physical culture and sport, organization and enhancement of its performance.
The renewal of the sports and physical training work on the upper level of management concerns such organizational-economic segments as:
1. Property administration (inventory of sports property, structural assessment, performance evaluation, lease relations, transparency of decision-making etc.);
2. Standard economy (checkoff rates, grants, benefits, due, business performance etc.);
3. Budget policy in the sphere of physical culture and sport (balance of income and expenditure, financial management, financial development strategy, maintenance costs in the sports and physical training system, business policy);
4. New management technologies (quality of information system and its resources, “human factor”, techniques of reaction to changing conditions, negotiation process, risk allowance, balance settlements of effects and damage etc.);
5. The innovation orientation of the sphere of physical culture and sport – orientation to support of training processes, programs on innovation development in education, update of sports and physical training methods.
At the level of Ministry of education, science, youth and sports of Ukraine, NOC, SCU and in the regions such activity is planned and being performed, which is proved by the designed “Nationwide development program of physical culture and sport for 2013 – 2017”, hundreds of proposals and amendments to the Budget and Accounting Act of Ukraine for 2012”, realization of educational projects in the TEMPUS system, personnel training (trainings, realization of the principle: “Learning all life long”) etc.
No doubt that the agents of management perform the function of coordination and control of performance of regional organizations while forming their scope of strategic functions. One of these functions is design of the monitoring system with regional control points (Fig.). It should be marked that the regional administration in physical culture and sport in connection to the common monitoring network is not ready, though some information blocks are not so hard to make accurate in the aspect of monitoring. These are – personnel, production, financial and “problem” blocks. We include in the problem block the issues of rational рациональности расходования бюджетных средств, content of the objects of the social sphere, unpaid wages, conflict situation, безработицы и др.
Fig. The organizational and management model of the monitoring system of the sphere of physical culture and sport
The “effect on the reformation process” - restructuring, readjustment, bankruptcy, privatization and other fundamental reorganizations should be designed, on the regional level first, as a single subsystem of monitoring. In these situations regional authorities in physical culture and sport should have an access to all necessary information and assist in planning, document and decision preparation, follow-up of agreements and obligations. Regional sports and physical training monitoring traces two different research and information relations: by the hierarchy in the sports and physical training system and within the structure of regional public authorities. The organizational and management model of the monitoring system is shown on the example of the Kharkov region.
The Figure 1 shows that monitoring of the sphere of physical culture and sport in the region consolidates all spheres of life via connections and is to take part in the data exchange with power structures, business, public organizations and straight with the population.
At the first phase monitoring is focused on two goals of data exchange and situational analysis. Its development is based on two functions of support of innovative management technologies, forecasting and programs (strategies) of regional development of the system of physical culture and sport.
Surely, monitoring is not an end in itself, but reveals new potentials of solution of sports and physical training goals when operating. An the main potential by now is to involve the mechanisms of realization of innovative ideas, methods and programs, combine projects of the innovative sector with the practice of solution of problem sports in the sports and physical training range of problems.
This is the goal of the “Socioeconomic centre “Strategies of development of the sphere of physical culture and sport” (hereafter Centre) established under Kharkov state academy of physical culture. The goals of the Centre:
· Elaboration of the development strategy of the sports and physical training movement (on the regional level first).
· Financial management and economic analytics in the sphere of sports and physical training (receipt of funds, use, search for additional sources).
· Arrangements for introduction of innovation technologies (organizational, economic, social, scientific and technical and production).
· Socioeconomic planning.
· Education and training.
· Development of the monitoring system in the structure of physical culture and sport.
· Communication maintenance of the structure of physical culture and sport.
Besides the monitoring concept, the goal of the Centre is to introduce modern marketing into the sports and physical training environment. Marketing is a conventional category of market economy and public activities are based on the principles of “non-profitability and disinterestedness”. But it does not mean that marketing researches are useless in social processes. We think that it is good for physical culture and sport as a system operating in the service industry to develop this new technology, especially as the competitive environment is being formed in the structure of physical culture and sport. Here marketing is to be directed to detection of the needs for innovations, estimation of susceptibility of the team to organizational and technical changes, pricing for services etc. Resource assessment of physical culture and sport and regional potential and efficiency of the measures being taken is to be included in the marketing concept.
Since sports and physical training activity is rather specific, marketing is displayed updated and transformed. Now the Centre is developing and is able to suggest such a specific marketing model for sports and physical training systems.
The issues of involvement and introduction of people into occupations of physical culture and sport can be realized in case of combining the model of monitoring and the marketing concept. The single and integral regional of sports services should be considered as a special object of the sports and physical training effect. The object contains: workplaces, number of the involved in physical culture and sport, salary, mix of skills, prevention of diseases, working efficiency dynamics. And the very influence mechanism on this object includes enhancement of produced services, determination of staff requirements, stimulation of education, observance of legality, compensatory mechanisms, supporting funds and a whole range of other means.
1. In conditions of transformational economy the priority directions for the sports and physical training movement are development and use of advanced economic, management and administrative knowledge, providing for the phased transition to the practice of solution of sports issues to the management and marketing mechanisms, modern social technologies and balance methods of cost estimates.
2. There exists an objective necessity of a system study of the modern state of the sphere of physical culture and sport to establish conditions for active occupations of physical culture and sport for everybody in compliance to his needs, interests and abilities.
3. Development and introduction of the “concept of monitoring management of the sports and physical training system” and technologies of increase of effective work of sports organizations need scientific substantiation.
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G.N. Putyatina email@example.com
Ya.V. Leonov. mob.ph.: +380509131632; firstname.lastname@example.org
I.I. Prikhod’ko mob.ph.: +380674525180