Control in training of women's national cross country skiing team in 1984-1998

Control in training of women's national cross country skiing team in 1984-1998

ˑ: 

A.A. Grushin, honored trainer of the USSR and Russia, head of the department for sports training of Russian Olympic committee, Moscow

Key words: long-term training, volume of loading, control indices, body shaping, efficiency.

Introduction. The last gold medal Russian female racing skiers won in single disciplines in Winter Olympic games (WOG) was in 2002 (IXX WOG - Salt Lake City USA) in sprint. J. Chepalova was the first Olympic champion in single sprint when the discipline was first admitted to the Olympic games. The last gold medal Russian skiers won in relay race was at XX WOG - 2006 (Italy, Turin). At XXI WOG 2010 (Canada, Vancouver) Russian female athletes had no gold medals and the only bronze was won in team sprint. The performances of the female skiers in all other competitive disciplines were a failure. The best result was the 7th place shown by E. Medvedeva at the 10km race walk, the rest – places from 12 to 40. At the last five WC within 2003 - 2011 female skiers won 3 gold, 5 silver and 5 bronze medals. In the recent years efficiency tends to decline substantially in all competitive disciplines, thus 1 silver medal at WC 2009 (E. Medvedeva, 30 km, F), and no medals at WC 2011. In fact, we observe a regular efficiency “downfall” of Russian female racing skiers in the last two Olympic cycles with the financial, material and technical and organizational support provided on a full scale for the full-fledged team performance in this period. Thus, it indicates to obvious and significant drawbacks in the sports training programs being realized at the moment, designed by the coaching staff responsible for training of the Russian women’s national team [1, 2].

The drawbacks can be revealed and eliminated if to apply to the experience of organization of sports training in the period of total dominance of the Russian women’s national team in World Cups and Olympic games.

From 1984 to 1998 (Tab.1) the female athletes have won:

·  at four WOG - 14 gold, 8 silver and 8 bronze medals;

·  at six WC – 21 gold, 10 silver and 8 bronze medals.

Table 1. Efficiency of performances of the Russian women’s national team at WC and WOG within 1984 -1998 (% of the total score)

Sr.No.

 

Year

Rank of competition, venue

% of the total score

Team placing

Number of medals won

1m

2m

3m

4m

5m

6m

1

1995

WC, Canada

60,00

1

5

3

1

2

2

2

2

1997

WC, Norway

59,09

1

5

-

2

2

3

3

3

1988

WOG, Canada

55,68

1

3

3

2

1

1

-

4

1998

WOG, Japan

51,81

1

5

2

1

1

2

1

5

1992

WOG, France

48,18

1

3

2

4

1

1

1

6

1993

WC, Sweden

44,54

1

3

2

2

3

-

1

7

1989

WC, Finland

44,31

2

2

2

1

2

2

6

8

1994

WOG, Norway

38,18

1

3

1

1

1

3

3

9

1991

WC, Finland

38,18

1

4

1

1

1

1

-

10

1987

WC, Germany

30,68

3

1

2

1

2

-

-

11

1985

WC, Austria

13,63

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

Winter Olympic games

14

8

8

4

7

5

World Cups

21

10

8

13

9

12

Note. Scoring table from places 1 to 6: 1 - 7 scores; 2 - 5 scores; 3 - 4 scores; 4 - 3 scores; 5 - 2 scores; 6 - 1 scores. 22 points are up for grabs at every distance.

The purpose of the study was to approve the control strategy in training of national cross country skiing teams based on evaluation of the basic indicators of sports training and monitoring.

Materials and methods. The ratio of the volumes and intensity of training and competitive loads executed is a key instrument in control of sports training in cycling sports, associated with manifestation of endurance. These very load indicators provide for certain "shifts" in an athlete's body, stimulating corresponding adaptive changes in it, that, in its turn, promote high special exercise performance, required for efficient training and competitive activities.

The problem of individualized standardization of intensity of sports loading in cross-country skiing is still acute. By now athlete's heart rate is the most objective and available indicator of physiological tension of loadings performed. And the procedure of standardization and monitoring is to be realized regarding athlete’s individual heart rate indicators, fixed in tests of maximum oxygen consumption (MOC), anaerobic (AnT) and aerobic thresholds (AeT).

The studies of the body functional indicators of female cross country skiers of the national team revealed their individual differences (Tab. 2).

Table 2 Individual indicators of body functional abilities of elite female cross country skiers (Results of phased integrated surveys, Moscow, AESRIPC, 24 - 27.04.1984, skiing treadmill)

Full name

Weight

MVV, L/min

MOC,   L/min

MOC,

ml/min/kg

HRmax

HRAnT

Lazutina L.

57,5

121,5

4,150

72,17

196

160

Stepanova J.

58,2

108,0

4,320

74,23

196

178

Egorova L.

50,0

106,0

3,441

68,82

209

180

Nageykina S.

57,3

94,0

3,718

64,89

192

174

Ordina A.

68,5

145,0

4,554

66,48

186

175

Reztsova A.

58,3

126,0

3,952

67,79

195

183

Gavrilyuk N.

56,9

129,0

3,867

67,96

200

183

Tikhonova T.

57,4

103,0

3,748

65,30

198

192

… total of 20 female athletes

Mean value

58,0

115,3

3,879

67,05

198,0

181,5

Standard deviation

4,8

11,7

0,300

4,07

7,0

8,5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Note. Scoring table from places 1 to 6: 1 - 7 scores; 2 - 5 scores; 3 - 4 scores; 4 - 3 scores; 5 - 2 scores; 6 - 1 scores. 22 points are up for grabs at every distance.

The weight of female athletes ranged from 50 to 68 kg, the mean value was 58 ± 4,8 kg. MVV (maximal voluntary ventilation) – from 94 to 145 L/min, the mean value comprised 115,3 ± 11,7 L/min. MOC (maximum oxygen consumption) – from 3,441 to 4,554 L/min, the mean value was 3,879 ± 0,3 L/min. MOC/kg – from 64,89 to 74,23 ml/min/kg, the mean value totaled 67,05 ± 4,07 ml/min/kg. HRmax – from 186 to 209 bpm with the mean value amounting to 198,0 ± 7,0 bpm. HRAnT – from 160 to 192 bpm, the mean value was 181,5 ± 8,5 bpm. Laboratory investigations resulted in determination of the individual pulse equivalents adequate to physiological intensity zones at the level of MOC, AnT and AeT.

The mean values of HRAnT in % of HRmax, registered in laboratory tests in the period from 1984 to 1993, amount to 91,1 ± 1,5%. Hereat, their positive dynamics was fixed influenced by training loadings within the year macrocycle. The growth of equivalent HR indices at the level of AnT ranges from 87 to 94 % of HRmax estimated in the testing of MOC.

The values of HRAnT in % of HRmax, registered in laboratory tests in the period from 1984 to 1993 average 70,5 ± 2,0%. The changes of HR indices at the level of AeT within the year cycle range from 65 to 75 % of HRmax on the average.

Henceforth, when training the Russian women’s national team the monitoring and regulation of intensity of training loading was made in accordance with 4 zones, based on the individual pulse equivalents in % of HRmax), in line with the loading intensity at the level of MOC, anaerobic and aerobic thresholds.

Zone 1 - loading intensity ranging up to 75 % of individual HRmax;

Zone 2 - loading performed with intensity in the range from 75 to 87 %;

Zone 3 - loading intensity ranging from 87 to 94 %;                         

Zone 4 - loading with the intensity over 94 %

Results and discussion. The ratio of training loadings performed in different intensity zones in the system of long-term training of the Russian women’s national team in 1985-1998 is adduced on Figure 1.

The volumes of loadings performed in the intensity zones 1 and 2 in the system of sports training of the Russian women’s national team are dominating and amount to over 80 % of the total cyclic load. Thus, the main orientation of training effects is associated with the aerobic energy supply mechanisms.

The studies resulted in the allocation of the general model of the ratio of average parameters of cyclic loadings (%) in 4 intensity zones in the system of long-term training of the Russian women’s national team within 1984-1998, Fig. 2.

The general quantitative model of the ratio of training loadings performed in the intensity zones under study in the system of long-term sports training is as follows: zone 1 - 43,4±2.2%; zone 2 - 37,8±3,6%; zone 3 - 13,3 ± 2,0%; zone 4 - 5,5±0,2% 

In the long-term dynamics of the total volume of cyclic loading (VCL) it tends to increase (Fig. 3). Comparing the seasons 1984/85(8232 km) and 1995/96 (10025 km) the VCL increased up to 1793 km. This rise took place at the expense of the proportional increase of the volumes of ski and roller and ski trainings. The dynamics of the volume of running loading tends to decrease insufficiently.

The maximums of the VCL indicators were reached in 1995/96/97 of sports training and amounted to 9965, 10025 and 9989 km respectively. Neither WOG, nor WC were held in 1995/96 sports seasons. The best results were shown by the Russian women’s national team in World Cup 1995 and 1997 (Tab. 1), when the maximum indicators of volumes of cyclic loading were recorded (Fig. 3). 

The volume of loadings using cyclic training in the period under study must have reached the maximum values in the history of training of Russian female racing skiers.

The indicators recorded during the workout in the AnT zone are the key criteria in the monitoring of athletes’ functional fitness level. In this case the indicator of the individual value of HR corresponding to the intensity zone AnT is heart rate of anaerobic threshold (HRAnT).

The figure 4 shows the indicators of HRAnT recorded in the course of preseason of female racing skiers of the country national team for three Winter Olympic games (WOG) and four World Cups (WC).

The analysis of the interdependence of the average HRAnT and team efficiency (% of the total score for the place taken, Tab. 1) indicates to high information value of the examined indicator when estimating the level of female athletes’ functional fitness.

The model indicators of the MOC dynamics, ml/min/kg of female racing skiers of the country national teams in 1985-1998, at the body shaping phase in the year training cycle are presented on Fig. 5.

The gradual unforced build-up of functional fitness of female body related to the athletes’ weight during the pre-season and in the first part of the regular season was marked in the dynamics of the maximum aerobic capacity indicator of MOC.

The increment of the index for April – November totaled to 19,1%. Besides, two successive cycles can be allocated in the general dynamics of the indicator under study with the typical periods of marked increase of the indicator for three months with its further one-month decline. In the first cycle the indicator under study increased from April to July by 15% and decreased in September. In the second cycle the increment of the indicator from September to November amounted to 11,2% and dropped slightly in December during the first races. We assume such cyclicity in the dynamics of development of female athletes’ functional fitness to be stipulated by regular long-term adaptation mechanisms. Adaptive changes enhancing the rise of the indicator under study are replaced by the recovery period of the adaptive reserve of the female athletes’ body, shown in the temporal decrease of the indicator MOC/kg. Moreover, the long-term adaptation shown in the structural (plastic) and functional changes in motor and vegetative body systems (increase of cardiac output, number of functioning capillaries of muscular tissues, number and activity of aerobic enzymes, mitochondria etc.) takes time and energy for its full-value course, which is reflected in the dynamics of the indicator under study in the form of two big adaptive “waves” (cycles).

Clearly, the functional fitness of the vegetative system of female athletes’ body reaches its maximum by November, promoting optimal realization of sports potential in a series of official competitions in the rather long regular season, including the main Olympic games and World Cups.

Conclusions. The worked model characteristics of the basic indices of sports training and control can be taken into account in design and realization of the structure and content of the modern year training cycles of elite female cross country skiers, especially in the pre-Olympic training cycle for Winter Olympic games 2014. In this very period the main strategic orientation is creating conditions for development of the maximum level of functional fitness of female athletes' body, promoting good sports shape by the moment of the main competitions.

References

1. Batalov, A.G. Control of sports loading in cross country ski race / A.G. Batalov, A.V. Kubeev, V.N. Manzhosov // Works of scientists of SCOLIPC: the 75th anniversary. Yearbook. – Moscow, 1993. – P. 217–225. (In Russian)

2. Batalov, A.G. The model-targeted method of design of sports training of elite athletes in winter cyclic sports (paper 2) / A.G. Batalov // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2001. – № 2. – P. 8–13. (In Russian)

Author’s contacts: alex-batalov@yandex.ru