Ergospirometric indices of evaluation of exercise performance of female swimmers of different ages and qualifications

Ergospirometric indices of evaluation of exercise performance of female swimmers of different ages and qualifications

ˑ: 

A.V. Shepilov, candidate
A.V. Nenasheva, professor, Dr.Biol.
A.P. Isaev, professor, Dr.Biol. South Ural state university (research university), Chelyabinsk
 
Key words: volume characteristics, oxygen pulse, respiratory coefficient, sports ontogenesis.

Relevance. The lag of the Russian Federation from the leading world powers in sports swimming stipulates for the search and substantiation of innovative training technologies (rehabilitation and training). Thus the essence of the preseason training process is to be examined. One should use alternative training methods, including effective methods of rehabilitation, specialized motor actions performed in the mode of aerobic threshold, technologies of adaptation to work in conditions of hypoxia, qualification and specialization of young athletes predisposed to specific sport.

Materials and methods. The work contains the results of the age and qualification characteristics of 37 swimmers at the age of 11-12, 13-14 and 17-19 years old of the III, II, I sports grades and candidate masters and masters of sport. The researches were made using the Schiller diagnosing ergospirometry. Athletes were examined in the beginning of the preseason mesocycle. All conditions of the physiological experiment were observed in the research.
Results and discussion. The results of the study of elite female swimmers (MS, CMS) are adduced in Table 1.

Table 1. Ergospirometric values of 17-19-year-old female swimmers (n=12)

Parameters

SI unit

Rest

AT

Мах loading

Rest

AT

Мах loading

М1

М1

М1

m1

m2

m3

Loading

Watt

 

171,88

187,50

 

8,28

9,38

Volume of oxygen consumed

L/min

0,08

1,51

1,65

0,02

0,16

0,18

Volume of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body mass

mL/kg/min

1,39

26,58

28,91

0,31

2,35

2,41

Volume of СО2 inhaled

L/min

0,06

1,47

1,70

0,01

0,18

0,19

Respiratory exchange ratio RER

RVU

0,59

0,97

1,02

0,01

0,05

0,03

Blood circulation

Heart rate

L/min

81,75

172,75

179,38

2,63

3,13

4,00

Oxygen pulse

mL per beat

0,99

8,73

9,18

0,19

0,96

0,99

Systolic arterial pressure

mm Hg

110,00

172,38

170,38

2,99

5,38

7,38

Diastolic arterial pressure

mm Hg

60,00

98,75

92,00

3,00

3,13

7,88

Ventilation

Volume of oxygen consumed

L/min

2,00

38,88

44,75

0,38

3,00

3,13

Ventilatory tidal volume

L

0,45

1,26

1,37

0,03

0,13

0,14

Respiratory rate

L/min

9,61

30,59

32,38

1,28

1,94

2,03

Physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio

 

98,25

63,00

56,38

0,95

2,63

5,63

geGas exchan

Equivalent О2

RVU

11,75

24,38

25,63

0,38

0,68

1,25

Equivalent СО2

RVU

14,25

25,00

25,00

0,25

0,45

0,88

End-inspiratory О2 pressure

mm Hg

79,91

104,88

106,99

1,39

1,56

1,61

End-expiratory CО2 pressure

mm Hg

23,10

39,85

39,63

0,79

0,95

1,04

As follows from Table 1, the loading varied when reaching the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and amounted to 171,88±9,38 Watt. The volume of O2 consumed was gradually increasing up to 1,65 L/min at maximum loading. The volume related to oxygen consumed (per 1 kilogram of body mass) was increasing accordingly and the rates of changes of the examined indices were: 20,63; 1,09; 19,10 and 1,09 RVU respectively. The volume of СO2 in the inhaled air was gradually increasing by 24,50 and 1,16 times. The values of the respiratory coefficient increased by 1,64 and 1,05 times. Hereby, the loading increased from the AnT to maximum by 1,09 times. Thus, the ratio of indices remained the same at peak loading. But initially the examined athletes were in the range of mainly fat nutrition (RQ>0,7), provoking the reaction of fats with oxygen, carbon dioxide is substituted by water [1]. The ventilation characteristics increased were as follows: inspiratory volume – by 19,40 and 1,15 times; ventilatory tidal volume – by 2,8 and 1,09; respiratory rate – by 3,18 and 1,06; physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio – by 0,64 and 0,89 respectively. Thus, the impact of volume on the derivatives of pulmonary ventilation was the most essential among the factors determining its. This group of female athletes at reaction of fats with O2 a great volume of oxygen combines with fat hydrogen atoms to make water instead of СO2. The respiratory coefficient in the standard values at functional nutrition was equal to 0,825 RVU.

Gas exchange rates changed in the following way from the relative rest state to AnT and maximum loading: the equivalent O2 – by 2,07 and 1,05; the equivalent СO2 – by 1,75 and 1,00; end-inspiratory O2 pressure – by 1,31 and 1,02; end-expiratory CO2 pressure – by 1,73 and 0,99. Therefore, when the ergospirometric loading increased the gas exchange shifts were directed to increase of oxygen-dependent characteristics. Approximately ¾ of oxygen consumed are known [2] to produce carbon dioxide. Accordingly, the СO2 (VCO2) flow at rest is approximately 190 ml/min, and the VCO2/VO2 exchange ratio – the respiratory quotient RQ=0,75–0,85 RVU. While oxygen is transported to tissues in the sufficient amount to ensure muscle work, VO2 and VCO2 grow proportionally to each other. At ultimate load the O2 consumption reaches the level when circulatory responses fail to provide it. We marked inadequate reactions of diastolic pressure, low values of oxygen pulse, end-expiratory CO2 pressure, lactic acids at maximum loading, initially high HR. All this proves that applied training effects at preseason did not correspond to functional abilities of 17-19-year-old female swimmers.
Heart rate was continuously growing from rest to the AnT by 2,11 and from anaerobic activity to maximum loading by 1,04 times. Oxygen pulse varied from 8,82 to 1,05 times, systolic AP – by 1,57 and 0,99 times. The diastolic pressure rose by 1,65 and 0,93 times.

The results of the examined ergospirometric data of elite swimmers indicated to the observed proportionality and some desynchronization of changes. The functional system in its intergrative activity supposes specific autonomous manifestations of adaptive characteristics. These shifts can be distributed in the successive order of importance in the following way: the volume values of O2 and СO2, blood circulation characteristics, ventilation and gas exchange characteristics. The optimal ratio of carbohydrate and fat energy supply (RQ=0,71) is observed. Lactacidosis was not detected at loading.

The changes of the characteristics of the ventilatory equivalents for O2 and СO2, end-inspiratory O2 pressure and end-expiratory CO2 pressure, physiological dead space to tidal volume ratios prevailed among 13-14-year old females compared to senior athletes.

Alveolar ventilation is one of the key factors determining the value of O2 and СO2 alveolar concentration the gases dissolved in body tissues exert pressure, since dissolved gas molecules are in random motion due to their kinetic energy [1]. The alveolar oxygen gas partial pressure determines the pass of gas molecules to alveolar capillaries and dissolving in the blood. The diffusion rate in liquids is estimated by solubility and molecular weight. Taking the O2 diffusion coefficient as a unit, the relative diffusion coefficients for different important respiratory gases in the body fluids are: oxygen – 1,0; carbon dioxide – 20,3; nitrogen – 0,53; helium – 0,95 units.

The results of the study of ergospirometric indices in 13-14-year-old female swimmers are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Ergospirometric indices in 13-14-year-old female swimmers (n=13)

Parameters

SI unit

Rest

AT

Мах loading

Rest

AT

Мах loading

М1

М1

М1

m1

m2

m3

Loading

Watt

 

172

175

 

5,07

5,27

Volume of oxygen consumed

L/min

0,07

1,83

1,85

0,01

0,06

0,08

Volume of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body mass

mL/kg/min

1,4

37,2

37,8

0,04

1,14

1,24

Inspired СО2 volume

L/min

0,05

1,830

1,832

0,01

0,06

0,06

Respiratory exchange ratio RER

RVU

0,71

0,92

0,99

0,01

0,07

0,09

Blood circulation

Heart rate

L/min

96

172

175

3,01

5,07

5,27

Oxygen pulse

mL per beat

0,7

96

10,6

0,02

0,22

0,32

Systolic arterial pressure

mm Hg

115,84

172

170

2,78

3,07

3,37

Diastolic arterial pressure

mm Hg

76,45

78

76

1,98

2,29

2,19

Ventilation

Inspiratory volume

L/min

2,0

52

56,0

0,06

1,27

1,57

Ventilatory tidal volume

L

0,37

1,28

1,31

0,01

0,03

0,04

Respiratory rate

L/min

11,0

40,5

40,83

112

1,22

0,33

Physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio

 

98

72

62

4,35

2,96

2,46

Gas exchange

Equivalent О2

RVU

18,00

27

30,54

0,60

0,82

0,84

Equivalent СО2

RVU

16,00

27

30,00

0,001

0,81

0,61

End-inspiratory О2 pressure

mm Hg

104,2

104,7

113,14

3,12

3,15

3,44

End-expiratory СО2 pressure

mm Hg

29,7

38,1

40,89

3,15

4,15

5,19

As follows from Table 2, the loading at AnP amounted to 172,00±5,07 Watt, and at maximum loading the intensity was 175,00±5,27 Watt increasing by 1,02 times. The volume of O2 consumed from the state of rest to the AnP and the maximum loading increased by 26,14 and 26,43, and per kilogram of body mass 26,57 and 1,02 times respectively. The volume of СO2 released increased by 36,60 and 1,00 times, and the respiratory quotient increased by 1,30 and 1,08 times respectively. Thus, adolescents (13-14-year-olds), compared to 17-19-year-old females, had adequate responses of peripheral vessels, volume, ventilation and gas exchange core characteristics of body’s integrative activity. The values of oxygen pulse and central hemodynamics prevailed among adolescents. The growth of ventilation was stipulated by dominating increase of ventilatory tidal volume. The end-expiratory СO2 pressure among 13-14-year-old females exceeded the values for senior female athletes. The alveolar РСO2 is known to decrease in inverse proportion to pulmonary ventilation and depend on absorption rate or gas flow and volume of alveolar ventilation [1].

Ventilation characteristics of changes within the functional test were as follows: expiratory volume – by 26,00 and 1,08 times, respiratory rate – by 3,67 and 1,01, the physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio by 0,73 and 0,86 times. Besides, gas exchange rates rose: by the equivalent O2 – by 1,5 and 1,13, the equivalent СO2 – 1,69 and 1,11, the end-inspiratory O2 pressure – by 1,04 and 1,08 times, the end-expiratory CO2 pressure – by 1,28 and 1,07 times. The changes of the values of circulatory system were as follows: heart rate increased by 1,79 and 1,01 times, oxygen pulse – by 13,71 and 1,10, systolic AP – by 1,48 and 0,99, diastolic AP – by 1,02 and 0,97 respectively.

Proceeding from the results of the two groups of female athletes, the trainer of the first group used excessive loads inadequate to background functional and metabolic states of the subjects. The equivalent O2 was lower that the СO2 analog. In normal cases at rest only 82% of adequate oxygen in lungs corresponded to the volume of carbon dioxide released through the lungs. In our studies the preexercise state was equal to 88,89% for adolescents and 121,28% for senior female athletes. The norm for an adult is 82%.

The results of the examination of young swimmers at the age of 11-12 are adduced in Table 3.

Table 3. Ergospirometric values of 11-12-year-old female swimmers (n=15)
Parameters SI unit Rest AT Мах loading Rest AT Мах loading

Parameters

SI unit

Rest

AT

Мах loading

Rest

AT

Мах loading

М1

М1

М1

m1

m2

m3

Loading

Watt

 

141,67

166,67

?????

2,19

2,89

Volume of oxygen consumed

L/min

0,05

1,02

1,26

0,02

0,05

0,01

Volume of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body mass

mL/kg/min

3,80

24,17

29,47

0,01

0,59

0,61

Volume of СО2 inhaled

L/min

0,14

1,00

1,33

0,01

0,03

0,04

Respiratory exchange ratio RER

RVU

0,93

0,98

1,05

0,01

0,02

0,05

Blood circulation

Heart rate

L/min

75,33

172,00

181,33

2,42

1,73

0,01

Oxygen pulse

mL per beat

1,80

5,93

7,00

0,09

0,12

0,24

Systolic arterial pressure

mm Hg

115,36

158,67

162,00

5,43

5,98

6,47

Diastolic arterial pressure

mm Hg

75,34

86,00

88,33

0,81

2,08

4,51

Ventilation

Inspiratory volume

L/min

4,00

27,33

36,33

0,01

1,46

1,73

Ventilatory tidal volume

L

0,25

0,85

0,98

0,001

0,01

0,04

Respiratory rate

L/min

18,20

33,00

37,20

0,62

1,92

1,94

Physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio

 

98,33

65,67

54,67

1,09

1,96

2,42

Gas exchange

Equivalent О2

RVU

24,00

25,00

27,67

0,58

0,62

0,68

Equivalent СО2

RVU

25,00

25,33

26,00

0,58

0,69

0,93

End-inspiratory О2 pressure

mm Hg

113,40

105,13

107,43

0,36

0,44

0,76

End-expiratory CО2 pressure

mm Hg

27,50

37,87

38,50

0,60

0,66

0,82

As follows from Table 3, the volume of O2 consumed increased from the state of relative rest to AnT by 20,40 and at maximum loading related to the values at anaerobic threshold by 1,24 times. The volume of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body mass changed by 6,36 and 1,22 times accordingly. The volume of СO2 released – by 7,14 and 1,33 times. The respiratory quotient increased by 1,05 and 1,07 times. The directed shift of the balance of energy supply to carbohydrates (RQ=1) is traced. Lactic acidosis was evident at maximum loading. The volume of air released changed by 6,83 and 1,33, and ventilatory tidal volume – by 3,40 and 1,15 respectively. The values of respiratory rate – by 1,81 and 1,13 times. The physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio by 0,67 and 0,83. The ventilatory equivalent for O2 – by 1,04 and 1,11 timesа and for СO2 – by 1,01 and 1,03 times. The volume of carbon dioxide released through the lungs at rest amounted to 104,17% of the oxygen consumed in the lungs. The end-inspiratory O2 pressure changed by 0,93 and 1,02, end-expiratory CO2 pressure – by 1,38 and 1,82. Heart rate rose by 2,28 and 1,85 respectively. Oxygen pulse increases by 3,29 and 1,19 times. Systolic AP rose by 1,37 and 1,03, diastolic AP – by 1,14 and 1,03 respectively.

The volume of carbon dioxide released through the lungs was 104,17% of the volume of oxygen consumed in lungs. The respiratory quotient testified to the dominating carbohydrate-protein energy supply, which corresponds to the age needs of children at the stage of early puberty. The oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass in young adults at maximum loading and surpassed senior female athletes at rest and yielded to 13-14-year-old adolescents when reaching the AnT and maximum loading. The O2 consumption allegedly depends on the abilities of the oxygen transport system and oxygen utilization system, extracting and utilizing oxygen. Skeletal muscles get most of the cardiac output depending on exercise intensity and number of involved grounds of muscles to 80-90%. The less efficient, anaerobic, way of energy production in working muscles resulting in the increased lactate production is intensified for the purpose of power generation. Its bicarbonate buffer interaction is a source of extra СO2, stimulating respiration and provoking the increase of the pulmonary ventilation rate [2].

The study proves that training effects inadequate to functional capacities result in negative results requiring correction of the training process and biocontrol of dynamic homeostasis.

Bibliography
 
1. Gaiton, A.K. Medical physiology / A.K. Gaiton // Transl. From Engl.: ed. by V.I. Kobrin. – Moscow: Logosfera, 2008. – 1296 P. (In Russian)
 
2. Manual on functional diagnostics of cardiac diseases. Research and practice manual on cardiology / Ed. by prof. A.L. Syrkin. – Moscow: Zolotoy standart, 2009. – 368 P. (In Russian)
 
Author’s contacts: ashepilov79@gmail.com