ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL FITNESS OF JUNIOR JUDOKAS

Фотографии: 

V.V. Zebzeev, Ph.D.
O.S. Zdanovich, Ph.D.
Tchaikovsky state institute of physical university, Tchaikovsky

Key words: special fitness, junior judokas of power, tempo and playing styles of competitive duelling.

The contemporary level of development of sports raises high demands to the quality of training of judokas on different stages of the long-term training process. Combats are characterized by high intensity of technical and tactical actions requiring from athletes maximum muscle efforts and skills to show it in a rapidly changing situation. In the meantime, nowadays combat sports require from athletes the skill to be effective in five or six combats within several hours, demanding from a modern wrestler the high level of special fitness.

Moreover, as follows from the literature analysis, the specificity of competitive activity in judo is caused not only by the formed situation (performance conditions, opponents, refereeing, course and results of combats etc.) but also by the athlete’s individual style of duelling tactics. The characteristics of potential duelling styles, among which the most frequent are: "power", "playing" and tempo" ones, have been described by different authors [1, 2].

The relevance of the topic of the present research is determined by the fact that special fitness of wrestlers from various style groups on the stage of sports perfection and on next stages of the long-term training is a basis of fitness acquired by a wrestler before competitions [3, 4].

The purpose of the study was to estimate special fitness of junior judokas.             

Materials and methods. The experimental study was carried out from December 2009 till March 2010. 40 judokas at the age of 16-18 – athletes from Tchaikovsky “Judo” sports club with the ranks of first class, Candidate for Master of Sport and Master of Sport, took part in the study. The subjects of the experiment were divided into two equal groups 20 persons each. The educational experiment was of dual orientation with the experimental group training according to the specially designed individual and group method focused on improvement of technical mastery and increase of special fitness level, whereas the control one – by the standard method for judo children's and youth sports schools of Olympic reserve.

Results and discussion. Special fitness of junior judokas, distributed into control and experimental groups, was estimated using the following specific tests: dummy throws for 30 seconds and 3 minutes (number of reps), continuous performance of Uchikomi 30 reps (seconds) and integration test - SJFT (c.u.).

 According to the dominant orientation these tests promoted evaluation of manifestation of various energetic components of wrestlers’ special endurance. For example, dummy throws for 30 seconds characterize mainly alactate anaerobic capacities, whereas continuous performance of 30 reps of Uchikomi – anaerobic glycolytic ones. In dummy throws for 3 minutes aerobic orientation is prevailing, and in the SJFT-test – it is an integral index evaluating special endurance of judokas.    

The dynamics of the results of the test of special fitness indicators of the representatives of various individual duelling styles from the control and the experimental groups is adduced in Table.

Table. The dynamics of special fitness indicators during the educational experiment in the control and the experimental groups

 

Indices

 

 

 

Styles

Increments of special fitness results

Before the experiment

М±m

After the experiment

 М±m

 

∆%

 

 

Dummy throws for 30 seconds (number of reps)

 

CG

“Power” judokas

7,6±1,2

8,5±1,3

11,8 *

“Tempo” judokas

8,1±0,8

8,7±1,1

7,4

“Playing” judokas

8,3±0,6

9,1±0,9

9,6

EG

“Power” judokas

7,8±0,6

10,2±1,5

30,8 *

“Tempo” judokas

7,9±0,8

10,8±1,3

36,7 *

“Playing” judokas

8,5±1,2

11,7±1,2

37,6 *

 

 

Dummy throws for 3 minutes (number of reps)

CG

“Power” judokas

36,2±2,5

37,3±2,9

3,0

“Tempo” judokas

37,3±2,1

38,9±2,7

4,3

“Playing” judokas

35±1,7

36,6±2,6

4,6

EG

“Power” judokas

36,3±1,5

42,6±1,9

17,4 *

“Tempo” judokas

37,1±1,6

43,1±1,4

16,2 *

“Playing” judokas

35,6±1,2

41,9±1,5

17,7 *

 

 

Continuous performance of Uchikomi 30 reps (s)

 

CG

“Power” judokas

56,5±2,3

53,6±2,6

-5,4

“Tempo” judokas

57,5±2,3

54,4±2,3

-5,4

“Playing” judokas

58,5±2,8

54,7±2,8

-6,5

EG

“Power” judokas

56,3±2,5

48,9±1,9

-13,1 *

“Tempo” judokas

57,2±2,3

49,4±2,7

-13,6

“Playing” judokas

59,1±2,6

51,2±2,9

-13,4 *

 

 

 

SJFT (c.u.)

CG

“Power” judokas

4,91±0,17

4,93±0,19

0,4

“Tempo” judokas

4,73±0,23

4,82±0,21

1,9

“Playing” judokas

5,22±0,58

5,16±0,23

-1,1

EG

“Power” judokas

4,92±0,28

3,83±0,15

-22,2 *

“Tempo” judokas

4,69±0,45

3,76±0,24

-19,8 *

“Playing” judokas

5,31±0,51

4,38±0,31

-17,5 *

Note: * - reliability of differences on the level р<0,05.

Special fitness indices in the control group increased in all test tasks with the increment amounting: in “dummy throws for 30 s” (“power” judokas - 11,8%, “tempo” judokas - 7,4%, “playing” judokas - 9,6%), “dummy throws for 3 minutes” (“power” judokas - 3,0%, “tempo” judokas - 4,3%, “playing” judokas - 4,6%), “continuous performance of Uchikomi 30 reps” (“power” judokas - 5,4%, “tempo” judokas - 5,4%, “playing” judokas - 6,5%), “SJFT” (“power” judokas - 1,2%, “tempo” judokas - 1,1%, “playing” judokas - 1,1%), but significant differences were registered only in “power” judokas in “dummy throws for 30 s” (р<0,05).

By the end of the experiment a rise of special fitness indices occurred among judokas of the experimental group, for instance, in such tests as “dummy throws for 30 s” (“power” judokas - 30,8%, “tempo” judokas - 36,7%, “playing” judokas - 37,6%), “dummy throws for 3 min” (“power” judokas - 17,4%, “tempo” judokas - 16,2%, “playing” judokas - 17,7%), “continuous performance of Uchikomi 30 reps” (“power” judokas - 13,1%, “tempo” judokas - 13,6%, “playing” judokas - 13,4%), “SJFT” (“power” judokas - 22,2%, “tempo” judokas - 19,8%, “playing” judokas - 17,5%). Significant changes were revealed by all indices (р<0,05), except for “continuous performance of Uchikomi 30 reps” in tempo wrestlers (р>0,05).

Conclusion. As follows from the results of the analysis of the dynamics of special fitness indices of power, tempo and playing style judokas in the control and experimental groups, positive shifts in the indices of special fitness were marked for the period studied in both of the groups. However, proceeding from the data received, power, tempo and playing athletes of the experimental group have a statistically reliable advantage (р<0,05) compared to judokas of the control group of these competitive duelling styles. Particularly, the relative growth of results of the athletes from the experimental group generally exceeds twice the one in the control group and in some cases is three times more, that predetermined more successful performance of these judokas in competitions.

References

  1. Oleinik, V.G. Specifics of fitness of wrestlers of different duelling styles / V.G. Oleinik, P.A. Rozhkov, N.I. Kargin // Combat sports: yearbook. – Мoscow, 1983. – P. 21–24. (In Russian)
  2. Tactical and technical characteristics of combat in single combat sports/ Ed. by A.F. Sharipov, O.B. Malkov. – Мoscow: Fizkultura i sport, 2007. – P. 45–50. (In Russian)
  3. Tumanyan, G.S. Bioenergetical basics of improvement of the elite wrestlers’ training system / G.S. Tumanyan, V.V. Shiyan, V.M. Nevzorov.  Combat sports: yearbook. – Мoscow: Fizkultura i sport, 1986. – P. 43–44. (In Russian)
  4. Shiyan, V.V. Estimation of wrestlers’ bioenergetical capacities / V.V. Shiyan, L.A. Igumenova. – Мoscow: SportAkademPress, 2003. – 31 P. (In Russian)

Author’s contacts: zebzeev85@mail.ru