The rapid progress of sportsmanship in futsal provokes more detailed studies of the process of athlete training and search for the possible ways to enhance it.
Achievement of high sports results within the growing competition requires from an athlete constant improvement of technical mastership .
Development of special coordinating abilities is one of perspective directions of technical training of elite athletes .
Football player’s coordination is shown mainly in ball and dummy actions in ever-changing game situations. Motions associated with dribble, tackling and kicks require from players ultimate manifestation of coordinating abilities. The role of high level of development of the coordination quality is clear if adding the fact that motor and technical activities of futsal player proceed in competitive conditions and other starting positions (scissor-kick, tackle, flying header etc.), in ever-changing game conditions (rain, heat, grass, cinder, dirt fields, natural and artificial lighting etc.). Agility, accuracy and timeliness of applied techniques depend on how the player handles his moves and on the level of his training abilities .
The purpose of our research was to design a program focused on development of the level of coordinating abilities in 13-14-aged futsal players.
The worked program of improvement of the level of development of coordinating abilities was supposed to improve technical mastership of 13-14-year-old futsal players.
The tests we used to study development of coordinating abilities in children involved in futsal included:
1. “Slalom with dribbling” test: 5 stands were placed at the 30 m distance. The person under test has 4 tries to clear 5 stands by means of slalom. In the 1st try he does a dummy run, while in the other three he bends the stand with a ball. The time of all used tries is recorded. Then the dummy try and the best bend try were compared. The least disparity between the tries indicates to the best coordination.
2. “Kick accuracy” test: the target is determined, for instance, lower right corner of the goals. The person under test had 2 tries of 5 kicks from the 6 m distance. Valid trials of hitting the set angle are marked. Accuracy is estimated by the number of valid trials.
3. Test of “replay of jump ½ of the maximum”: person under test makes a maximum standing jump, followed by 3 tries to jump half of his maximum. All the tries are recorded. The closest jumps half of the maximum testify to good differentiation ability.
Two groups (control and experimental) were formed after a pretest. Experimental group was to train by our program, whereas the control one used the standard training program.
As follows from the analysis of results of the test preceding the pedagogical experiment, the ones who trained in the experimental and control groups did not differ significantly by the level of coordinating abilities (р>0,05).
While designing the training program, we first considered the matter of duration of the directed pedagogical effect. The classes by the program lasted three months and were held 3 times a week in the preliminary part of the class after a warm-up and took 20 minutes of the training time.
The program was made of exercise sets classified by orientation of development: spatial orientation, differentiation, balance and reaction abilities.
In the program we polished coordinating abilities in two directions: basic and specific, where the former consists in systematic practicing of completely different exercises, requiring high level of coordination and providing for solid motor experience. These are acrobatic exercises, resistance exercises, jumps over stands, clearing obstacles, facilitating polishing of new motor coordinations by players. A more diverse motor experience of the ones who train promotes quicker and more distinct reaction to recent motor situations. The latter consists in ball skills, juggling, various types of passes and moving techniques specific for futsal.
While selecting physical exercises we used the ones effecting different analyzers such as motor, visual, tactile, auditory ones and stipulating for development of various manifestations of coordinating abilities, i.e. those acute for a futsal player.
The effect of improvement is possible to obtain in case of increasing coordinating complicacy of training tasks with the use of teaching techniques . The teaching techniques applied in our program were:
1. Motion technique variation.
2. Exercising at time pressure.
3. Making necessary allowances at various data sources: visual, auditory, vestibular, tactile and kinesthetic.
4. Exercising after preliminary work.
5. Introduction of necessary starting positions, at starts, shots, passes etc.
6. Mirror exercise execution (e.g., dribbles, passes, throws).
7. Change of spatial boundaries of exercising.
8. Complication of exercises using extra motions.
9. Changes of the counteraction of the involved in outdoor and sports games, in combat sports.
10. Creation of unusual conditions for exercising and change of special stands and facilities.
10.The most complete active manifestation of coordinating abilities by the involved ones, exercises are to be regularly renewed, varied and held in new, more complicated conditions.
11.Orientation abilities were developed using such exercises as change of direction on a signal; ball exercises; squares 4 : 2, 3 : 3, 4 : 4 etc.; stand dribble; special exercises followed by kick; move dribbling in various directions; pass and dribble shuttle run.
Differentiation abilities were trained using the following exercises: different types of juggling; top and low accuracy shots; high and low passes to a partner; various acrobatic combinations.
Balance ability was trained using the special tasks: alternation of all types of bench walk with turns; run with changed direction; single-leg juggling; bench dribbling; head and hand stand after rolls.
Responsiveness was developed by means of the following exercises: unexpected turning passes; run on a signal from various positions; dribbling partner using swerves; run on a signal changing direction; rep exercises performed by a partner.
Efficiency of the designed program aimed at development of coordinating abilities in futsal player was checked by means of the pedagogical experiment. The results promoted considering changes in the level of their abilities in the EG and CG for the period of the directed pedagogical effect.
The analyzed changes in the level of development of coordinating abilities in children playing football within the pedagogical experiment approved the positive effect of the applied means, methods and organizational forms with the more significant rates of increase occurred in the experimental group than the control one.
As an example, the “slalom with dribbling” test. The mean result in the experimental group was 2,6 sec. before the pedagogical experiment and 1,3 sec. after the experiment, testifying to a 1,3 sec improvement, whereas in the control group the progress amounted only to 0,5 sec., which is a half of the one in the experimental group. The indices in all other tests are practically the same. Regarding the “accuracy of shot on goal” test, a significant increase of the result was provoked by the directed pedagogical effect, as proved by the result increment, per 2,3 times in the EG, per 0,9 times in the CG, i.e. the diversity of results between the quoted groups is per 1,4 times.
Since more pronounced changes in the results are marked in the ones in the EG than in the CG, by the “replay of jump ½ of the maximum” test, where the result in the EG rose by 10,5 sm, while the progress in the CG was only 6,1 sm, that is 4,4 sm less than in the EG.
The analysis of changes in the level of development of coordinating abilities of children involved in futsal during the pedagogical experiment confirmed the positive effect of the applied methods, methodological approach and organizational forms. Positive shifts in the level of development of coordinating abilities reflect age features of their development and the impact of the focused teaching effect, testifying to more notable changes in the indices in the experimental group compared to the control one. Surely, some positive shifts were marked in the control group as well, where the final results of some indices authentically differed from the initial data (replay of jump ½ of the maximum). However, the growth rates in the experimental group were remarkably higher and the final results by all indices substantially differed from the initial data. Thus, the designed program is more efficient for development of coordinating abilities in the 13-14-aged male futsal players.
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