Comparative analysis of effectiveness of programs of fencers' physical training
Comparative analysis of effectiveness of programs of fencers' physical training
Introduction. International Fencing Federation is constantly improving the competition rules striving for the objectification of the system of determining athletic performance, increase of visual appeal and popularity of sport among spectators, sponsors and mass media. Such changes make it necessary to improve the system of sports training in accordance with the structure and content of the competitive activity of both qualified and young fencers [12, 14]. One of the ways to improve the athletes training system is to create a proper basis of their physical and functional fitness during the early stages of the long-term training. Since the effective course of adaptive processes in the athlete’s body according to certain sport may be also stipulated by the change of orientation of the training process according to athlete’ inclinations, as well as the increased volume or intensity of training loads, many researchers [4, 9, 11 et al] mark the necessity of development of the system of sports training in view of athletes’ individual characteristics during the early stages of the long-term training.
As follows from the analysis of methodological publications, many researchers have worked with the issue of improvement of physical fitness of young fencers [1, 2-10, 13, and others]. A.D. Movshovich et al. systematized the content of young fencers’ training by age levels, depending on the dynamics of development of physical qualities and found the goal of 10-13-year-old fencers’ physical training of development of speed, explosive force, flexibility, and hand force.  As found by B.Zh. Omirzakova, the directed effect of the used conditioning and special exercises on the lagging qualities of physical and mental preparedness of young fencers relative to model characteristics, provides for obtaining the model indices in the fitness level earlier than usually . However, these studies do not take into account the specifics of fencers’ competitive activity. V.M. Labskir determined efficiency of sports, special preliminary exercises (mainly in the game form), as well as an exercise set to develop fencers’ agility, speed, flexibility and endurance at the initial stage of specialization (at the age of 12-14).  S.N. Kiril’chenko revealed the significantly improved accuracy of specific actions within young and teenaged fencers due to the risen level of speed and power qualities by its targeted development using the game and competitive methods . Nevertheless, most of the studies were fragmentary and focused on development of single physical qualities or its groups. The researchers' views regarding the orientation of fencers’ physical training on the stage of pre-basic training were proved to be uncoordinated [1, 3]. Yu.M. Bychkov and coauthors assert that fencers’ physical training should be dedicated to development of flexibility, speed of single motions and explosive leg force and to a certain extent - agility and leg and hand strength, regardless of the type of weapon. But V.A. Busol pays special attention to development of speed, speed-strength, coordinating qualities and flexibility in the system of physical training of 12-14-year-old fencers . Therefore the essential theoretical and practical problem is to justify the program of physical training of young epee fencers in view of the content of competitive activity.
The purpose of the study was to compare effectiveness of training effects of conceptually different programs on physical training of young fencers.
Materials and methods. The research methods included theoretical analysis and synthesis, pedagogical observation using instrumental techniques (dynamometry, chronometry, pulsometry), comparative cross-educational experiment and methods of mathematical statistics (estimation of M, SD, W-criteria Shapiro-Wilke test and Student t-test).
The eight months long educational experiment was made of two phases (four mesocycles each). 34 epee fencers were examined randomly divided into two groups equal by qualification (17 athletes each, including 10 – II and 7- I sports categories) and age (12-14) and were consistent with the normal distribution (p ≤ 0,05) in 18 out of the 20 indices of the fitness level. Significant differences were established in terms of the maximum force of the back extensor muscles in favor of the athletes from the EG1 and the take-off-foot explosive force in favor of the EG2.
At the stage I of the experiment (02.09.-31.08.2011) fencers of the EG1 were busy with development of physical qualities all the time in view of the factor structure of physical fitness of qualified epee fencers, . 67% of the time meant for physical training was used by the athletes of the EG2 for integrated development of physical qualities, and 33% of the time was spent for focused training of underdeveloped qualities of each athlete related to the average intragroup fitness indices. At the stage II of the experiment (02.09-30.012.2011) 67% of the time athletes of the EG1 devoted to integrated development of physical qualities and 33% - to underdeveloped qualities of each athlete, whereas athletes of the EG2 dedicated all the time for physical training to the integrated development of physical qualities important in epee fencing.
Results and discussion. The analysis of fitness indices of young epee fencers during the time of the experiment indicates to substantial difference in effectiveness of various programs of physical training (Fig. 1). The use of the differential development of physical qualities promoted a 10,3% higher increase in the epee fencers’ fitness level compared to the integrated development.
Proceeding from the analysis of physical fitness of young epee fencers, the classes by the program combining integrated development of important in epee fencing physical qualities and focused training of underdeveloped qualities of each athlete promoted a more pronounced improvement of the young epee fencers’ fitness by 17 indices out of 20, compared to the program of integrated development of physical qualities, with 12 of them characterizing general, and 5 - special physical fitness. The fencers who kept to the program of integrated development of physical qualities had more expressed changes only in terms of flexibility level, spatial orientation skill and special agility (test task 20). The gain of the level of development of single physical qualities of the epee fencers in both experimental groups varied widely (in the range from 2.9% to 59.9%). So, the physical qualities of the athletes involved in the program of integrated training improved by 2,9 – 28,5%, whereas the gain of the athletes involved in differentiated physical training was twice as high and better (11,5 - 59, 9 %).
The indices of special physical fitness of fencers involved in the integrated development of physical qualities were proved to increase significantly. So, the level of development of special agility rose by 25,3%, explosive force of take-off foot by 17,0%, strength endurance by 15,0%, speed strength by 13,5%, travel speed in combat stance backward by 13,4% and forward by 12,0%.
Proceeding from the analysis of general fitness indices of the fencers engaged in the integral development of the essential in epee fencing physical qualities and focused training of underdeveloped qualities of each athlete, same as their counterparts from the previous group, they were proved to have the largest increase in fidelity of wrist force reproduction (59,9%) and long jump fidelity (52,7%), reaction rate on a moving object (45,6%), maximum force of wrist flexors (34,1%) and fidelity of time intervals (33,8%). A bit smaller but still significant increment is observed in the level of explosive force in upper extremities (22,5%), running speed (20,2%), flexibility (19,6%), spatial orientation skill (19,3%), simple reaction rate (17,7%), choice reaction rate (15,6%), maximum force of back extensors (14,8%) and leg explosive force (11,9%). The rather significant increase must be stipulated by the lability of adaptive responses to the applied training effects. As in the previous group, the epee fencers engaged in differential physical training, the smallest increment was observed in the level of general exercise performance, but it was varied significantly from that of the fencers involved in the integrated training of their qualities and was 8,6% higher. The quoted results prove the methodological literature data regarding the relatively minor increase of such a quality in the athletes aged 12-14. 
The highest gain in the fitness indices of epee fencers engaged in the differentiated program was allocated in speed force (35,1%), and strength endurance (34,2%), that is higher than in the previous group by 21,6% and 19,2 % respectively, along with a significant increase in explosive force of the take-off leg (27,5%), travel speed in combat stance backward (24,3%) and forward (19,3%). The slightest increment was shown in special agility (13,3%), which is 7% less than of fencers engaged in the integrated training of their physical qualities.
1. The classes of epee fencers aged 12-14 by various programs of physical training stipulated for improvement of their level of physical fitness.
2. The classes carried out in accordance with the program of differentiated physical training facilitated a more notable gain of young fencers' fitness by 17 indices out of 20 compared to the integrated development of physical qualities.
3. The integrated development of physical qualities contributed to a more pronounced positive changes in terms of flexibility, spatial orientation skill and special agility.
4. Apart from the content of physical training in the system of young fencers’ sports training the maximum increase was shown in their general fitness indices (EG1 – reaction rate to a moving object, EG2 – fidelity of hand force reproduction).
5. Training by the program stipulating for the combined integrated development of acute in epee fencing physical qualities and focused training of the underdeveloped ones in every athlete promotes a more remarkable (by 10,3% on the average) training effect than by the program of only integrated development of the physical qualities crucial for epee fencers.
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