Organization of municipal domiciliary sports activity

Фотографии: 

S.V. Ivanova, candidate
I.V. Manzheley, professor, Dr.Hab. Tyumen state university, Tyumen
 

Key words: domiciliary community sports activity, ecopsychological approach, people’s attitude to sports activity, quality and resources provision of sports services.

Research relevance. On the verge of the XXI century humanity faced ecological, economic, political and social problems affecting the quality of human life, health and well-being. The indicated problems are assumed to be settled within an intercultural dialogue and constructive teamwork of various authorities and organizations with a wide use of scientific and practical achievements.
The sphere of physical culture and sport could not stay aloof from the quoted process. New ideas, approaches and technologies of organization of municipal sports activities are being actively searched along with development and integration into practice of innovative projects and programs.
The “Strategy of development of physical culture and sport for the period till 2020“ contains a number of guidelines on development of this area in Russia such as “Increase of the number of regularly training residents on the first stage from 15,9% in 2008 up to 30% in 2015, and on the second one up to 40% in 2020“.
In the current situation organization of domiciliary sport and physical activities has become one of the most serious socioeconomic, sociocultural and educational tasks of great value for development of both Russia as a whole and the city of Tyumen in particular.
Organization of domiciliary sports and physical activities has been the topic of researches by such scientists as G.Z. Aronov, G.M. Kuz’menko (2008), S.N. Litvinenko (2006), N.N. Nikitushkina (2010), P.G. Smirnov (2002) and V.I. Stolyarov (1997). However, dynamism, globalization and ambiguity specific for the current epoch render a significant and unstable effect on various areas of social life, requiring, in its turn, a study of the problems and perspectives of development of the municipal domiciliary sports activity in the present context.
The purpose of the study was to reveal the problems and perspectives of organization of municipal domiciliary sports activity, design and experimental substantiation of the model of organization of municipal domiciliary sports activity.
Materials and methods. The research methods were as follows: analysis and systematization of the data from literature sources, documents and materials, pedagogical modeling and planning, socioeducational experiment.
Results and discussion. Proceeding from the analysis of the experience in arranging domiciliary sports activities, Tyumen has much in common with the current situation in Russia in general but still has its specifics. The critical points of the Tyumen domiciliary sports activity are: low sports activity of the people (in 2009 only 16,7% of the population was involved in physical culture and sport); lack of sports facilities; low conceptual regulatory background and qualified personnel deficiency. Herewith, the supporting aspects of development of municipal domiciliary sports activity can be the following: peoples’ attitude to health as a value and exercising as a method of its promotion (“health” takes the 1-3 places in the hierarchy of life values – 89.3% of the residents favour physical culture and sport); the use of courtyard territories, parks, public gardens, sport facilities belonging to different governmental and private institutions; support of the town administration; federal and regional legislative acts; involvement in domiciliary sports activity of experts from other business spheres, students and the retired. Thus, we set a number of priorities: development of children’s and youth, Paralympic and veterans’ sports along with revival of courtyard, club and school sports and recreation activities; coordination of the cooperation of different institutions and organizations, specifically regarding information support and efficient use of the material and technical basis; improvement of sports facilities’ capacity; renovation and rearrangement of the material and technical basis; development of municipal legislative regulations, provisions and instructions; expert qualification and retraining.
It is to be marked that at present the essential conditions of improvement of domiciliary sports activity are: firstly, establishment of the new system of relationship between local authorities and public institutions, i.e. elaboration of the regulatory background and effective teamwork with authorities, institutions and organizations regardless of the patterns of ownership). Secondly, every administrative district is to develop local sport infrastructure focusing on maintenance, establishment and arrangement of the backyard regional and object environment adapted to organization of sports activities with people; increase social activity of the town population, including based on the wide use of social network capacities.
The analysis of references (1,3,5,7,8) and synthesis of the personal experience enabled us to create the model of organization of municipal domiciliary sports activity (Fig.).

Health Department   Department of Sport and Youth Policy   Department of Education and Science

GOALS – to improve the quality and availability of sports services, to involve people in regular occupations of physical culture and sport

PLANNING (project and cybernetic-based approach)
ORGANIZATION (wide-area network interaction)
DEPARTMENT of organization of domiciliary sports activity
REGULATION (environmental approach)
CONTROL (monitoring)
Directions of activities
Elaboration of regulatory background and models of social interaction of subjects of domiciliary sports activity
Scientific and methodological support (study of public needs, specifics of sports environment and quality of sports services)
Rearrangement of the material and technical basis in view of people’s sports needs and services
Expert qualification and retraining in view of people’s sports needs and services
Work and introduction of targeted programs, means and methods of organization of domiciliary sports activity
Information support via social networks

LAD SPORTS ORGANIZERS
Specialized children’s sport school “Tura”; sports facilities, courtyard sport grounds, parks, public gardens etc.
RESIDENTS

EAD SPORTS ORGANIZERS
Specialized children’s sport school “Rubin”; sports facilities, courtyard sport grounds, parks, public gardens etc.
RESIDENTS

KAD SPORTS ORGANIZERS
Specialized children’s sport school “Tura”; sports facilities, courtyard sport grounds, parks, public gardens etc.
RESIDENTS

CAD SPORTS ORGANIZERS
Specialized children’s sport school “Tura”; sports facilities, courtyard sport grounds, parks, public gardens etc.
RESIDENTS

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL LAD
Area improvement and safety measures, policing, information support

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL EAD
Area improvement and safety measures, policing, information support

EFFICIENCY CRITERIA: Involvement of people in sports activity. Quality of sports services, Resources of sports environment

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL KAD
Area improvement and safety measures, policing, information support

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL LAD
Area improvement and safety measures, policing, information support

The designed model was based on the following theoretical and methodological grounds:
Firstly, the project and cybernetic-based approach to the control over, considering numerous risks, uncertainties and internal and external environmental changes while planning and realizing activities in the current economic conditions based on provided flexibility and modifiability of control systems, along with monitoring (of public sports demands and resources’ provision of the field of physical culture and sports) as a control method to design targeted programs and science-based recommendations in view of experts’ and people’s opinions.
Secondly, the environmental (eco-psychological) approach, based on the noospheric thinking and up-to-date understanding of the environmental educational potential as conditions and potentials of personality development providing for the optimal ratio of spatial and subject components (sport facilities, parks, public gardens, equipment, etc.), content and technological components (programs, technologies, methods, types of work, etc.) and social component (values, traditions, personnel, relationships, etc.) of sports environment of specific administrative districts in view of actualization of domiciliary sports requirements (6). In the context of shortage of sport facilities organization of popular sports events can be a way out in the town area using conversion technologies.
And finally, the network approach to organization of district municipal sports subjects’ cooperation, presupposing formation of the horizontal system of subjects’ relationship (institutions of general, vocational and additional education, cultural institutions, district authorities, district client service, local community boards, management companies, representatives of other public organizations), domiciliary sports activity with people based on partnership, common information space and prompt response to public needs.
Domiciliary sports activity is meant to improve the quality and availability of public services provided in the sphere of leisure, socioeducative, sports and sports mass activities to involve more people of all ages and social backgrounds into regular occupations of physical culture and sport.
The goal set by the Tyumen and the Tyumen regional Departments of Sport and Youth Policy together with the Department of Education and Science and Health Department can be attained by solving several groups of tasks (action directions):
1. To provide regulatory framework of municipal domiciliary sports activity (settlement of legal relations among subjects, sport organizer’s legal status, requirements to plane sports constructions, etc.); to design effective  patterns and social technologies for domiciliary work with people (local subordinated authorities);  
2. To provide the scientific and methodological support for the municipal domiciliary sports activity (monitoring of infrastructure, public needs, quality of services and probability  based design and performance evaluation);
3. To upgrade the material and technical base by constructing new sports facilities, rebuilding and reconstruction of courtyard sports grounds;         
4. To employ socially and professionally competent personnel of sports organizers (advanced training courses, seminars and education boards);
5. To improve the quality of sport programs and technologies; to develop new directions of activity and the list of sports services in view of the needs of targeted population groups by means of resources of subordinated establishments.
6. To organize information support of domiciliary work with people by the maximum use of internet technologies.
The efficiency criteria for domiciliary sports activity were as follows:
- increase of the number of people involved in regular occupations of physical culture and sport (% of the involved of local people compared to the previous year);
- rise of the level of involvement of people into public sports events (% of the number of citizens);
- expansion of the range and increase of the quality of sports services (by people’s and experts’ estimates);
- improvement of resources’ provision of domiciliary sports activity (financial support, sport facilities and equipment, staff, programs and technologies).
The experimental work on introduction of domiciliary sports activity into practice of Department of Sport and Youth Policy has been carried out in the period from 2009 to 2012 in four administrative districts of Tyumen.
2,651 respondent aged over 14 (49.53% men and 50.41% women) took part in the social research made of two levels: the ascertaining study (600 respondents) in 2009 and the forming stage in 2009 – 2012 (2,051 people surveyed) aimed to examine changes in the Tyumen people’s involvement in domiciliary sports activity, the quality of public services and resources’ provision of municipal domiciliary sports activity before and after the introduction of the innovations adduced above.   
The research tasks were realized by the designed 3 types of structured questionnaires (for residents, trainers and sport organizers and experts) made of four sets of questions aimed at allocation of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, attitudes to sports activity and degree of involvement of various population groups, study of the quality of sports services and their resources’ provision and cause-and-effect relations, stipulating for the state and perspectives of development of domiciliary sports activity. The studies resulted in the designed software “Monitoring of domiciliary sports activity”. 
2,051 people over 14 years old, including 1,714 residents, 305 coachers and 3 experts from the Eastern, Leninskiy, Central and Kalininskiy administrative districts of Tyumen, were surveyed in the experiment in 2012. The sample was mostly made of schoolchildren and students (44.94%), workers and employees (13.59%) and qualified experts (12.78%).
The highest rating in health self-assessment of all Tyumen residents belonged to the statement “I feel alright, nothing to complain about, so far” (52.62% of respondents); “Feel unwell from time to time” was rated second (34.77%), “feel unwell quite often” was the third (7.94%). It should be noted that people with chronic diseases and the disabled comprised to 2.39 and 0.82% of the sample respectively.
Generally, proceeding from the results of the experiment in 2012 87. 3% of the residents had a positive attitude to physical culture and sport, 47.27% show positive and active attitude to sports occupations, since 24.23% (compared to 16.7 % in 2009) are involved in sports on the regular basis in addition to compulsory school and university classes, (15.64% train 2-3 times a week and 8.59% - at least 4 times a week) and 23.04%  (21.3% in 2009) of residents regularly go in for seasonal sports. In addition, 39.39% (51.4% in 2009) of the respondents treat sports activities positively but passively (29.76% consider the classes good for health but cannot find time to exercise; 9.63% follow sports events).  It should be marked that 12.67% (10.6% in 2009) of the respondents had a passive and negative attitude to sports occupations, saying that they “don’t care” (Tables 1-2).
Thus, regular sports activity of the population has increased by 7.53% for three years, mainly due to the changed attitude of some residents from “passive and positive” to “active and positive”. Moreover, compared to 2009, the number of people occasionally involved in physical culture and sport increased by 2.1% (seasonal sports) in 2012.

Table 1 Residents’ attitude to sports activity (involvement in sports by gender, %)

Attitude to sports

Gender

Total

2009

Total

2012

Male

2009

Male

2012

Female

2009

Female

2012

1. Sports occupations are good for health but I have no time for it

32.0

24.73

44.5

34.61

38.5

29.76

2. Exercise regularly 2-3 times a week (in addition to compulsory school/ university classes)

18.3

20.62

11.5

10.77

14.8

15.64

3. Practice sports at least 4 times a week

2.5

12.26

1.3

4.98

1.9

8.59

4. Exercise occasionally: active leisure, seasonal sports

22.5

21.91

20.2

24.19

21.3

23.04

5. Don’t do sports and don’t care

9.5

10.72

11.5

14.58

10.6

12.67

6. Don’t do sports but follow the news about sport events

15.1

9.42

10.9

9.83

12.9

9.63

Total

99.9

99.66

99.9

98.96

99.9

99.33

Table 2. Residents’ attitude to sports (involvement in sports by districts, %)

Opinion

Administrative district

Total

EAD

КАD

LАD

CAD

1. Sports occupations are good for health but I have no time for it

25.5

24.8

29.1

38.2

29.76

2. Exercise regularly 2-3 times a week (in addition to compulsory school/ university classes)

12.4

19.3

20.4

9.9

15.64

3. Practice sports at least 4 times a week

10.7

9.5

7.3

7.1

8.59

4. Exercise occasionally: active leisure, seasonal sports

25.2

26.1

22.7

18.4

23.04

5. Don’t do sports and don’t care

15.7

13.1

7.5

14.7

12.67

6. Don’t do sports but follow the news about sport events

10.2

7.1

10.7

10.6

9.63

Total

99.7

99.9

97.7

98.9

99.3

As follows from the age data analysis, teenagers aged 14-17 are the most active in sports (2-3 times a week in addition to compulsory PE classes where they study). The same tendency is traced in the group doing sports at least 4 times a week. What arouses the concern is the lack of physical activity in the age group of 18-19-year-olds, followed by the increase in the age of 23-30 and then gradual decrease, as has been shown in the studies of 2009.
Based on the study of life values, “health” is a priority for the residents of all the four districts of Tyumen. It is followed by an “interesting job” and “family happiness” and usually “love”. The most significant motive for sports occupations for the Tyumen residents is “the wish for health improvement”; “wish to cheer up” and “strive for perfect body”; then goes “the wish to release fatigue and increase exercise performance”, “wish to move and let off steam”, testifying to the dominating biosocial motives of sports activity.
Swimming, football, aerobics (shaping), volleyball, ping-pong, cycling and basketball are the sports in demand in Tyumen. As follows from the allocated sports interests of the residents of administrative districts, swimming, football, ping-pong, cycling and volleyball are the most popular in the Eastern district; football, swimming, hand-to-hand fight, light athletics and aerobics – in the Kalininskiy district. The residents of the Leninsky district are fond of aerobics (shaping), football, weightlifting, volleyball and swimming. The Central district residents are interested in swimming, aerobics (shaping), basketball, ping-pong, and volleyball. 43.09% of the respondents wish to do some sport if provided the required conditions. The sports most popular with those Tyumen residents not doing sports are swimming, aerobics (aqua), shaping, plane modeling, parachuting, shooting and tennis. It is worth noting that the Tyumen residents’ interest in cycling, figure skating and tennis has risen along with the remained general priorities in popular sports.
The lack of time (18.74%), laziness (12.22%) and lack of facilities in the area (9.39%) are considered the key reasons of low sports activity by approximately two thirds of the population of all the districts (70.37% of respondents).
It is encouraging, though, that 70.42% of the residents surveyed in 2012 (50.2% in 2009) are ready to spend money on sports with the most widespread amount a month of 600-1,000 rubles in EAD, 1,010-1,500 rubles in КАD, and 100-500 rubles in LАD and CАD. 85.03% of parents are ready to pay a thousand a month maximum for their children’s sports activities.  And 53.04% of the residents considered themselves financially safe, 13.13% can afford everything they need and 25.96% buy only the necessities.
Most of the surveyed in 2012 were proved to estimate the quality of Tyumen sports services as “good” (48.34% compared to 13.0% in 2009). 33.77% of people (37.1% in 2009) marked it “satisfactory” and 10.80% of the surveyed (24.4% in 2009) think the quality “is far from satisfactory”, indicating to significant improvement of the quality of sports services provided to the residents of Tyumen.
The analysis of the obtained data promoted specifying of the measures assumed to facilitate municipal domiciliary sports activity: construction of sport grounds and complexes, free or reasonably priced classes in local fitness centers, the applied mechanism of preferential and free access to sport facilities for low-bracket categories of the population, offering sports capacities based on the place of study or work, as well as sports events and campaigns regarding healthy way of life.
At present with the efforts of the Department of sport and youth policy the integral system of organization of domiciliary sports activity has been formed in Tyumen. 124 sport organizers work in this sphere; 40 of them after the 72-hour retraining course “Innovative technologies of domiciliary sports activity” in the Institute of additional education of Tyumen state university in 2012. The targets of sport organizers’ teaching activity (regardless of marketing and administrative work etc.) are organization of domiciliary public sport activities, events, week-end outings and club recreational, patriotic, family and leisure and educative activities. Moreover, they are responsible for participation of specific teams in municipal and other sport competitions. In their work they take into account the capacities of the material and technical base (available and capacity of sport facilities), townscape (available parks and public gardens), town sports events calendar and sport needs of various population groups, focusing on solution of specific teaching tasks, coordinating events with an employer. It resulted in the arisen such traditional events as Sports Contest of Court Teams “And in our Yard!”, Toddlers’ Championships, festivals and contests devoted to Christmas and New Year public holidays, memorable dates like Children’s Day, Youth Day, Russian Independence Day, competitions and events devoted to the Town Day.
The domiciliary activities are being organized based on sport facilities of various forms of ownership on the contract basis. Nowadays, 68 (48%) district sports grounds of Tyumen, 58 (38%)  sport venues of the Department of education, 13 (8%) sport objects owned by the Department of sport and youth policy, one venue of the Department of culture and 2 (1%) regional, 4  (3%) federal and 8 (5%) private institutions are being involved in domiciliary activities. In addition, over 40 vandal-proof modules were installed to maintain and preserve the sports grounds’ equipment.  
Thus, the science-based development of the domiciliary sports activity in Tyumen provided for work and realization of sports programs for various sociodemographic population groups, involving citizens in the dynamic, interactive, healthy, sport leisure and consequently increased the people’s quality of life. However, as follows from the strategy of physical culture and sport in the Russian Federation and forecasts, the branch infrastructure in Tyumen is to accept additional 36000 attendants of trainings 2-3 times a week by 2020, requiring essential reconstruction of the material and technical base, training and retraining of specialists, work of targeted socio-pedagogical programs, technologies and methods to keep people interested in regular domiciliary occupations of physical culture and sport.

References

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